Tobacco and Nicotine

Tobacco and Nicotine Products

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or E-Cigarettes, Explained

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) or E-Cigarettes

(Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or E-Cigarettes, Explained)
"3. ENDS, of which electronic cigarettes are the most common prototype, deliver an aerosol by heating a solution that users inhale. The main constituents of the solution by volume, in addition to nicotine when nicotine is present, are propylene glycol, with or without glycerol and flavouring agents.

Alternative Estimate of Total Number of Deaths In the US Caused By Tobacco Use

(Alternative Estimate of Total Number of Deaths In the US Caused By Tobacco Use) "Our results suggest that the Surgeon General's recent estimate of smoking-attributable mortality may have been an underestimate. The Surgeon General's estimate, which took into account only the 21 diseases formally established as caused by smoking, was that approximately 437,000 deaths among adults are caused each year by active smoking (not including secondhand smoke).

Initiation of Tobacco Use in the US, 2012

(Initiation of Tobacco Use in the US, 2012)
"• The number of persons aged 12 or older who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months was approximately 2.3 million in 2012, which was similar to the estimates from 2004 through 2011 (ranging from 2.1 million to 2.5 million), but was higher than the estimates for 2002 and 2003 (1.9 million and 2.0 million, respectively) (Figure 5.7). The 2012 estimate averages to about 6,400 new cigarette smokers every day. About half of new cigarette smokers in 2012 (51.4 percent) initiated prior to age 18.

Estimated Prevalence of Daily and Heavy Tobacco Use in the US According to NSDUH, 2013

(Estimated Prevalence of Daily and Heavy Tobacco Use in the US According to NSDUH, 2013)
"• Among the 55.8 million current cigarette smokers aged 12 or older in 2013, 33.2 million (59.6 percent) used cigarettes daily. The percentage of daily cigarette smokers among past month cigarette users increased with age (19.4 percent of past month cigarette users aged 12 to 17, 43.1 percent of those aged 18 to 25, and 64.9 percent of those aged 26 or older).

Global Tobacco-Related Mortality

(Global Tobacco-Related Mortality) "Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. It kills nearly 6 million people and causes hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage worldwide each year. Most of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and this disparity is expected to widen further over the next several decades. If current trends continue, by 2030 tobacco will kill more than 8 million people worldwide each year, with 80% of these premature deaths among people living in low- and middle-income countries.

Medicinal Nicotine Products and Addiction Potential

(Medicinal Nicotine Products and Addiction Potential) "Nonetheless, although the pharmacokinetics of some smokeless tobacco products may overlap with those of medicinal nicotine products, medicinal products tend to have a slower rate and a lower amount of nicotine absorption than do the most popular brands of conventional smokeless tobacco products (Kotlyar et al. 2007). Among the medicinal nicotine products, nicotine nasal spray has the fastest rate of nicotine absorption, followed by nicotine gum, the nicotine lozenge, and the nicotine patch.

Tobacco and Nicotine Addiction

(Tobacco and Nicotine Addiction) "In summary, nicotine is the most potent constituent associated with the reinforcing effects of tobacco. However, researchers have identified other constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke that may be reinforcing or facilitate reinforcing effects of tobacco. Nicotine metabolites have also been identified as potential reinforcers or enhancers of the reinforcing effects of nicotine.

Tobacco Use, Cardiovascular Disease, and CVD Mortality

(Tobacco Use, Cardiovascular Disease, and CVD Mortality) "Cigarette smoking is a major cause of CVD, and past reports of the Surgeon General extensively reviewed the relevant evidence (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare [USDHEW] 1971, 1979; USDHHS 1983, 2001, 2004). Cigarette smoking has been responsible for approximately 140,000 premature deaths annually from CVD (USDHHS 2004). More than 1 in 10 deaths worldwide from CVD in 2000 were attributed to smoking (Ezzati et al. 2005).

Tobacco and Cancer

(Tobacco and Cancer) "Although cigarette smoke contains diverse carcinogens, PAH, N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, aldehydes, and ethylene oxide are among the most important carcinogens because of their carcinogenic potency and levels in cigarette smoke. Moreover, the major pathways of metabolic activation and detoxification of some of the principal carcinogens in cigarette smoke are well established.