Prisons, Jails, and the Corrections System: Overview

Related Chapters:
Drugs and Prison
Race and Prison
Crime, Arrests and Law Enforcement

Page last updated Oct. 25, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor/Senior Policy Analyst.

1. Number of People Serving Time in State and Federal Prisons in the US

"At year-end 2019, an estimated 1,430,800 prisoners were under state or federal jurisdiction, a decrease of 2% from the 1,464,400 prisoners in 2018 and 11% from the peak of 1,615,500 prisoners in 2009 (table 1). About 88% of all prisoners were under state jurisdiction and 12% were under BOP jurisdiction in 2019, with state prisoners accounting for 86% of the decline in the total prison population from 2018 (not shown in tables). By yearend 2019, the total prison population declined for the sixth consecutive year, and the federal prison population declined for the seventh consecutive year.

"Thirty-five states showed decreases in their year-end prison populations from 2018 to 2019 (table 2). Texas had the largest decline (down 5,200 prisoners), followed by Missouri (down 4,300), whose laws on non-violent offenders’ parole eligibility changed in 2019. Large declines were also seen in New York (down 3,100), Illinois (down 1,700), Pennsylvania (down 1,500), and Florida (down 1,500). Prison populations increased in 12 states from 2018 to 2019, with Alabama seeing the largest increase (up 1,500 prisoners).

"Overall, the number of male and female prisoners both declined from year-end 2018 to 2019. The number of male prisoners, who made up 92% of the total prison population at year-end 2019, declined by more than 30,700 (down 2%) from year-end 2018. The number of female prisoners decreased by more than 2,800 (down 3%). While 37 states and the BOP showed decreases in male prisoners from year-end 2018 to year-end 2019, a total of 32 states and the BOP had decreases in female prisoners at the end of 2019. Texas had 800 fewer and Missouri had 700 fewer female prisoners at year-end 2019 than at year-end 2018. Large percentage changes occurred in states with smaller female prisoner populations, including in Massachusetts (down almost 43%), Missouri (down 23%), and Maine (down 22%)."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2019. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 2020, NCJ255155.
https://www.bjs.gov/...
https://www.bjs.gov/

2. Imprisonment Rates In the US By Gender and Race

"There were 419 sentenced state or federal prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages at year-end 2019, a decrease from 432 per 100,000 at year-end 2018 (table 5). The federal imprisonment rate in 2019 was 48 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents, and the state rate was 371 per 100,000. The total imprisonment rate in 2019 (419 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents) was the lowest since 1995. (See appendix table 1.) Since peaking at 506 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in both 2007 and 2008, the total imprisonment rate has fallen 17%.

"The imprisonment rate has fallen for 11 consecutive years. Imprisonment rates have declined each year since 2006 for whites and blacks (13 consecutive years) and each year since 2007 for Hispanics (12 consecutive years) (not shown in tables). They have declined each year since 2008 for males (11 consecutive years).

"Among U.S. residents age 18 or older, there were 539 sentenced prisoners in state or federal prison per 100,000 adult U.S. residents as of December 31, 2019, a 3% decline from 2018 (556 per 100,000) (table 6). The federal imprisonment rate for adults declined 4% from 2018 to 2019 (from 64 to 62 prisoners per 100,000 adult residents), while the state imprisonment rate for adults decreased 3% from 2018 to 2019 (from 491 to 477 per 100,000). About 1% of adult males living in the U.S. were serving a prison sentence of more than one year in 2019 (1,025 per 100,000 male U.S. residents age 18 or older). At year-end 2019, the imprisonment rate for adult females was 77 per 100,000 female U.S. residents age 18 or older, which was 8% as high as the imprisonment rate for adult males.

"At year-end 2019, more than 1% of black adults were serving a sentence in state or federal prisons (1,446 per 100,000 black adult U.S. residents), a 4% decline from year-end 2018 (1,501 per 100,000). The imprisonment rate of black adults at year-end 2019 was more than five times that of white adults (263 per 100,000 white adult U.S. residents) and almost twice the rate of Hispanic adults (757 per 100,000 Hispanic adult U.S. residents). From 2018 to 2019, the imprisonment rate declined 5% for Hispanic adults (from 796 to 757 per 100,000) and 2% for white adults (from 268 to 263 per 100,000).

"The imprisonment rate of black adults decreased 32% from 2009 to 2019, while the imprisonment rate of Hispanic adults declined 29% and the imprisonment rate for white adults decreased 15%.

"Imprisonment rates for white and black adults have declined for 13 consecutive years, while rates for adult Hispanics have declined for 12 consecutive years. The year 2019 marked the fourth decrease in a row for the adult female imprisonment rate and the twelfth for adult males. The rate of sentenced state prisoners has declined each year since 2007 (12 consecutive years), and the rate of sentenced federal prisoners has decreased 8 years in a row."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2019. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 2020, NCJ255155.
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https://www.bjs.gov/

3. Number of People Serving Time in Jails in the US

"County and city jails in the United States held 738,400 inmates at midyear 2018 (table 1), a decline of 6% from 785,500 inmates held in 2008. The midyear population remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2018. At midyear 2018, about one-third of jail inmates (248,500) were sentenced or awaiting sentencing on a conviction, while about two-thirds (490,000) were awaiting court action on a current charge or were held for other reasons.

"Over the 10-year period from 2008 to 2018, the rate of incarceration in local jails dropped by 12%, from 258 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents to 226 per 100,000 (fgure 1). During this period, the jail incarceration rate increased by 12% for whites and declined by about 30% for blacks (28%) and Hispanics (33%)."

Zhen Zeng, PhD. Jail Inmates in 2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Dept. of Justice. March 2020. NCJ253044.
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4. Trends and Number of Adults Under Correctional Supervision in the US

"The decline in the total correctional population, from 6,549,700 in 2017 to 6,410,000 in 2018, continued a downward trend that began in 2008 (table 1). Persons supervised in the community on either probation (3,540,000 persons) or parole (878,000) continued to make up the majority of the correctional population at year-end 2018. Nearly 7 in 10 persons in the correctional population were supervised in the community at year-end 2018 (4,399,000), while 3 in 10 were incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails (2,123,100).2

"The 2.1% decrease in the correctional population from 2017 to 2018 was due to a 2.4% decline in the number of persons supervised in the community and a 1.4% decline in the incarcerated population. The decrease in the community-supervision population during 2018 accounted for 79% of the decline in the total correctional population. Between December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2018, the number of persons under supervision in the community decreased to 4,399,000 (down 109,900). The total community-supervision population decreased by 2.4% during 2018, as the probation population decreased 2.9% and the parole population increased 0.3%. At the end of 2018, the number of persons under community supervision was the lowest since 1998, when they numbered 4,122,400 (not shown in tables).

"On December 31, 2018, an estimated 2,123,100 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails, which was 30,500 fewer persons than in 2017. By year-end 2018, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level since 2003, when 2,086,500 persons were incarcerated (not shown in tables).

"During 2018, the prison population decreased 1.6%, while the jail population remained relatively stable. The prison population at year-end 2018 (1,465,200) was at its lowest level since 2002 (1,440,100; not shown in tables). The total incarcerated population was 1.4% lower in 2018 than in 2017."

Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC. August 2020. NCJ252157.
http://www.bjs.gov/...
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus1718.pdf

5. Total Number of Adults Incarcerated in US Prisons and Jails

"On December 31, 2018, an estimated 2,123,100 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails, which was 30,500 fewer persons than in 2017. By year-end 2018, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level since 2003, when 2,086,500 persons were incarcerated (not shown in tables).

"During 2018, the prison population decreased 1.6%, while the jail population remained relatively stable. The prison population at year-end 2018 (1,465,200) was at its lowest level since 2002 (1,440,100; not shown in tables). The total incarcerated population was 1.4% lower in 2018 than in 2017."

Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC. August 2020. NCJ252157.
http://www.bjs.gov/...
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus1718.pdf

6. Correctional Supervision Rate for Adults in the US

"Since peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2007 (not shown in tables), the correctional-supervision rate has trended downward, falling to 2,510 per 100,000 at year-end 2018 (table 4). Changes in both the correctional population and the U.S. population affected the rate. More than half (58%) of the decrease in the correctional-supervision rate from 2008 to 2018 was attributed to the decrease in the number of offenders under correctional supervision.

"The remainder (42%) of the decline was attributed to the increase in the U.S. resident population age 18 or older (not shown in tables). The correctional-supervision rate at year-end 2018 was the lowest it had been since 1992 (2,490 per 100,000; not shown in tables).

"At year-end 2018, an estimated 1,730 offenders per 100,000 adult U.S. residents were on probation or parole. This was similar to the rate in 1990, when the community-supervision population was smaller by about 1.2 million offenders and the adult U.S. resident population was smaller by almost 69 million persons (not shown in tables). Like the correctional-supervision rate, the community-supervision rate has declined for 11 consecutive years since peaking in 2007 (2,240
per 100,000; not shown in tables).

"In 2018, about 830 persons per 100,000 adult U.S. residents were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails. This incarceration rate has declined since reaching a high of 1,000 per 100,000 adult U.S. residents from 2006 to 2008. The incarceration rate is currently at its lowest point since 1996 (830 per 100,000; not shown in tables)."

Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC. August 2020. NCJ252157.
http://www.bjs.gov/...
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus1718.pdf

7. Total Number of Adults Supervised by the US Correctional System, 2000, 2005, and 2010-2018

"Persons supervised in the community on either probation (3,540,000 persons) or parole (878,000) continued to make up the majority of the correctional population at year-end 2018. Nearly 7 in 10 persons in the correctional population were supervised in the community at year-end 2018 (4,399,000), while 3 in 10 were incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails (2,123,100)."

Click here for the complete data table.

Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC. August 2020. NCJ252157.
http://www.bjs.gov/...
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus1718.pdf

8. Estimated rate of persons supervised by US adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000 and 2005–2018

In 2018, the US adult correctional system had under its supervision one in every 40 US adults, which is a rate of 2,510 people under supervision per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older.

The rate for the population on community supervision, i.e. probation and parole, in 2018 was 1,730 per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older, and 1,340 per 100,000 US residents of all ages.

The rate for the incarcerated population, in jails and prisons, in 2018 was 830 per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older, and 650 per 100,000 US residents of all ages.

Click this link to open the complete data table.

Laura M. Maruschak and Todd D. Minton. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC. August 2020. NCJ252157.
http://www.bjs.gov/...
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus1718.pdf

9. Number of people held in US State or Federal Prisons or in Local Jails, by Type of Facility, 2000 and 2007-2016

In 2016, there were 2,157,800 people behind bars in the US. This includes state and federal prisons as well as local and county jails. Of these, 188,300 people were federal prisoners, and 1,288,800 were state prisoners, and local jails held a total of 740,700 people. The incarceration rate in 2016 was 670 people per 100,000 US residents of all ages. The adult incarceration rate in 2016 was 870 people per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older.

Click here for the complete data table for 2000 and 2007-2016.

Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018), NCJ250374, p. 3.
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10. Jail Inmate Population in the US by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

City and county jails in the US held 738,400 people at on June 29, 2018. ("Rates are based on the number of inmates held on the last weekday in June.")

Demographics on that date are as follows:
623,400 male, 115,100 female.
Juveniles: 3,700 held as adults, 600 held as juveniles.
Racial demographics were as follows:
White: 368,500
Black: 242,300
Latinx: 109,300
American Indian/Alaska native: 9,700
Asian/native Hawaiian/other Pacific islander: 4,800
"Other," including two or more races: 2,100

Only 248,500 people confined to a local jail had been convicted of any crimes and had either already been sentenced or were awaiting sentencing. The remaining 490,000 people confined to local jails were unconvicted and awaiting court action on a current charge.

"An estimated 226 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents were incarcerated nationwide at midyear 2018. Blacks were jailed at a rate of 592 per 100,000 black U.S. residents (table 2). American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) had a jail incarceration rate of 401 per 100,000 AIAN U.S. residents. Whites (187 per 100,000 white U.S. residents) and Hispanics (182 per 100,000 Hispanic U.S. residents) were jailed at similar rates.

"During the past decade, the jail incarceration rate increased for whites and declined for blacks and Hispanics. From 2008 to 2018, the rate grew from 167 to 187 per 100,000 for whites (up 12%), fell from 825 to 592 per 100,000 for blacks (down 28%), and fell from 274 to 182 per 100,000 for Hispanics (down 34%).
In 2018, blacks were jailed at their lowest rate since 1990. (See appendix table 2.)

"The male incarceration rate fell 14% between 2005 and 2018, from 448 to 387 male inmates per 100,000 male U.S. residents. During that period, the rate for females grew 10%, from 63 to 69 female inmates per 100,000 female U.S. residents.

"The black jail population dropped by 21% from 2008 to 2018

"From 2008 to 2018, the total jail population declined by 6% (47,100 inmates) (table 3). This was largely due to a 21% decrease in black inmates, which was partially offset by an 11% increase in white inmates. During this period, the overall Hispanic population (up 23%) and Asian population (up 40%) in the U.S. grew, while the number of Hispanic jail inmates decreased by 15% and the number of Asian jail inmates stayed about the same. (See appendix table 1 for population figures.)"

Zhen Zeng, PhD. Jail Inmates in 2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Dept. of Justice. March 2020. NCJ253044.
https://www.bjs.gov/...

11. Rates of Adult Incarceration and Community Supervision in the US

"After peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents in 2007, the correctional supervision rate trended downward, falling to a low of 2,710 per 100,000 by yearend 2015 (table 4). The drop in the correctional supervision rate was attributed equally to the decline in the U.S. correctional population and the increase in the U.S. adult resident population. By yearend 2015, the correctional supervision rate fell to the lowest rate since 1994 (2,650 per 100,000), when about 1.6 million fewer persons were supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems (not shown).
"There were 1,870 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents on either probation or parole at yearend 2015. This represented the lowest rate of offenders under community supervision since 1993 (1,830 per 100,000), when the population was smaller by about 1.1 million offenders (not shown). The community supervision rate reached a high in 2007 (2,240 per 100,000) before declining each year through 2015.
"At yearend 2015, 870 persons per 100,000 U.S. adult residents were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails. The incarceration rate has been declining since 2009 (980 per 100,000). By yearend 2015, the incarceration rate dropped to the same rate as 1997 (870 per 100,000)."

Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2016), NCJ250374, p. 4.
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12. Decline in State & Federal Prisoners 2011-2012

"The number of prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year in federal or state prison, representing 96% of the overall prison population, decreased by 1.7% in 2012 (table 5). The number of sentenced federal prisoners declined slightly (down 0.2%) in 2012, while the total federal population increased. The increase was driven primarily by population increases among inmates without sentences or with sentences of 1 year or less (1,929, not shown in table). The number of sentenced state prisoners also declined, with 25,987 (down 1.9%) fewer sentenced inmates in 2012 than in 2011. California accounted for 57% of this decline. Overall, the number of sentenced male inmates in state or federal prison declined by 1.7% (down 24,109) from 2011 to 2012, and the number of sentenced female inmates decreased by 2.3% (down 2,354) during the same period.
"Among the reporting jurisdictions, 25 out of the 47 states and the federal prison system showed declines in their sentenced prison population (table 6). Five states had decreases of more than 10% in their sentenced female prison population, while five others showed increases among females of more than 10% from 2011 to 2012. However, the majority of these states had a small overall prison population."

Carson, E. Ann, and Golinelli, Daniela, "Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2013), NCJ242467, p. 6.
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13. US Imprisonment Rates by Race

"There were 431 prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison per 100,000 U.S. residents at year-end 2018, a decrease from 441 per 100,000 at year-end 2017 (table 5). Te state imprisonment rate was 381 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages, and the federal rate was 50 per 100,000.

"Among U.S. residents age 18 or older, there were 555 prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison per 100,000 adult U.S. residents as of December 31, 2018 (table 6). More than 1% of adult males living in the U.S. were serving a prison sentence of more than one year (1,055 per 100,000), representing a decrease of 2.7% from year-end 2017 (1,084 per 100,000). At year-end 2018, the imprisonment rate for adult females was 80 per 100,000 female U.S. residents age 18 or older.

"From 2017 to 2018, the imprisonment rate for Hispanic adults declined 3.7%, from 823 per 100,000 Hispanic U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2017 to 792 per 100,000 in 2018. The imprisonment rate for black adults declined 3.2%, from 1,549 per 100,000 black adult residents at year-end 2017 to 1,500 per 100,000 at year-end 2018. Meanwhile, the imprisonment rate for white adults decreased 1.4%, from 272 per 100,000 white adult residents in 2017 to 268 per 100,000 in 2018.

"From year-end 2008 to year-end 2018, the imprisonment rate declined 15.2% for white adults (from 316 to 268 per 100,000) and 31.7% for black adults (from 2,196 to 1,501 per 100,000). Te number of sentenced Hispanic prisoners remained relatively steady between 2008 and 2018, while the number of Hispanic adult residents increased 33%. As a result, the imprisonment rate for Hispanics declined 25.1% over the decade."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2018. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2020, NCJ253516.
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14. Total Number of Adults In State and Federal Prisons In The US At Year-End 2015

"At yearend 2015, the United States had an estimated 1,526,800 prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities. This was the smallest U.S. prison population since 2005 (1,525,900 prisoners). The prison population decreased by more than 2% from the number of prisoners held in December 2014 (figure 1). This was the largest decline in the number of persons under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities since 1978 (figure 2).
"The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) had jurisdiction over 196,500 prisoners at yearend 2015, a decrease of 14,100 prisoners from yearend 2014. This was the third consecutive year that the federal prison population declined and the lowest number of federal prisoners since 2006 (193,000). This decrease in federal prisoners accounted for 40% of the total change in the U.S. prison population."

E. Ann Carson, PhD, and Elizabeth Anderson. Prisoners In 2015. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016, NCJ250229, p. 1.
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15. State and Federal Prison Populations in the US by Race, Gender, and Latinx Ethnicity

"Demographic characteristics among sentenced prisoners

"• At year-end 2018, an estimated 6% of sentenced white males in state and federal prisons were ages 18 to 24, compared to 12% of black and 10% of Hispanic male prisoners (table 9).

"• Three percent of male prisoners and 1.5% of female prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison were age 65 or older at year-end 2018.

"• Seventeen percent of white males sentenced to more than one year in prison were age 55 or older as of year-end 2018, compared to 11% of black and 9% of Hispanic male prisoners.

"• The age group most likely to be imprisoned is those in their 30s (over 1,000 men or women imprisoned per 100,000 U.S. residents).

"• Together, state and federal correctional authorities held more than 1% of all male U.S. residents ages 20 to 54 (more than 1,000 per 100,000 residents) at year-end 2018 (table 10).

"• In 2018, the imprisonment rate of black residents (1,134 sentenced black prisoners per 100,000 black residents) was the lowest since 1989 (1,050 per 100,000).

"• The imprisonment rate for black females (88 per 100,000 black female residents) was 1.8 times as high as for white females (49 per 100,000 white female residents), while the imprisonment rate for black males (2,272 per 100,000 black male residents) was 5.8 times as high as for white males (392 per 100,000 white male residents).

"• Black males ages 18 to 19 were 12.7 times as likely to be imprisoned as white males of the same ages (figure 2), the highest black-to-white racial disparity of any age group in 2018.

"• Hispanic males ages 18 to 19 were 3.3 times as likely as white males of the same ages to be imprisoned at year-end 2018.

"• In 2018, the disparities in imprisonment rates between sentenced black and white females and between sentenced Hispanic and white females were lowest for those ages 25 to 49 (figure 3)."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2018. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2020, NCJ253516.
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16. Growth of Jails in the US 2000-2016

US jails held, as confined inmates, 621,149 people in 2000; 767,434 people in 2009; 748,728 people in 2010; 735,601 people in 2011; 744,524 people in 2012; 731,208 people in 2013; 744,592 people in 2014; 727,400 people in 2015; and 740,700 people in 2016.
The above are mid-year counts of inmates confined by local jails on the last weekday of June for each year. Counts were estimated from the Annual Survey of Jails.

On December 31, 2015, jails in the US held 692,500 confined inmates, and on December 31, 2016, jails in the US held 704,500 confined inmates. The Bureau of Justice Statistics warns against comparison of mid-year and end-of-year inmate counts "because the jail population goes through seasonal change, typically with fewer inmates at year-end than at midyear."

Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2016," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Feb. 2018), NCJ251210, p. 2, Table 1, and p. 8, Appendix Table 1.
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Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, "Jail Inmates in 2015," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, December 2016), NCJ250394, Table 1, p. 3.
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17. Jail Incarceration Rate in the US at Year-End 2016, by Age and Race/Ethnicity

"At year-end 2016, the jail incarceration rate was 217 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, which was similar to the rate of 215 per 100,000 at year-end 2015 (table 2). The incarceration rate for adults age 18 or older was 280 per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older at year-end 2016. Males (377 per 100,000 male U.S. residents) were incarcerated at a rate six times that of females (62 per 100,000 female U.S. residents).
"Non-Hispanic blacks (599 per 100,000 black U.S. residents) had the highest jail incarceration rate at year-end 2016, followed by American Indian or Alaska Natives (359 per 100,000 AIAN residents). Non-Hispanic whites (171 per 100,000 white residents) and Hispanics (185 per 100,000 Hispanic residents) were incarcerated at a similar rate at year-end 2016. Among non-Hispanics in 2016, blacks were incarcerated in jail at a rate 3.5 times that of whites, down from 5.6 times the rate in 2000."

Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2016," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Feb. 2018), NCJ251210, p. 3.
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18. Number of People Confined in US Jails, 2016, by Conviction Status

"In 2016, an estimated 65% of all jail inmates were awaiting court action on a current charge. The remaining 35% were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. Seventy percent of inmates were held in jail for felony charges."

Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2016," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Feb. 2018), NCJ251210, p. 4.
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19. More Than 60 Percent of People Held in US Jails Have Not Been Convicted

"Since 2005, more than 60% of all jail inmates were awaiting court action on a current charge. About 4 in 10 inmates were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. The growth in the overall jail inmate population since 2000 was due to the increase in the unconvicted population. Regardless of conviction status, about 68% of jail inmates in 2015 were held for a felony offense, and the remaining 32% were held for either misdemeanor (27%) or other offenses (5%) (not shown)."

Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2015," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Dec. 2016), NCJ250394, p. 4.
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20. Number of People in Jails in the US, 2015, by Gender

"The juvenile population (those age 17 or younger) in local jails continued to decline in 2015, to fewer than 4,000 inmates (tables 3 and 4). This was down from a peak of about 7,600 juveniles in 2010. Since 2000, at least 8 in 10 juveniles held in local jails were on trial or awaiting trial in adult court.
"While males accounted for at least 85% of the jail population each year since 2000, the female jail population grew from 11% of the total jail population in 2000 to more than 14% in 2013 and 2014. As a result, the female jail incarceration rate increased from about 50 per 100,000 female U.S. residents in 2000 to nearly 70 per 100,000 in 2014. The male incarceration rate remained relatively stable since 2000 (about 400 per 100,000 male U.S. residents) (not shown)."

Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2015," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Dec. 2016), NCJ250394, p. 4.
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