Mental Health, Drug Use, Co-Occurring Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

Data, Statistics, and Information Regarding Mental Health, Drug Use, Co-Occurring Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

Mental Health Medications: Anti-Anxiety Medications

"Anti-anxiety medications help reduce the symptoms of anxiety, such as panic attacks, or extreme fear and worry. The most common anti-anxiety medications are called benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines can treat generalized anxiety disorder. In the case of panic disorder or social phobia (social anxiety disorder), benzodiazepines are usually second-line treatments, behind SSRIs or other antidepressants.

"Benzodiazepines used to treat anxiety disorders include:
"Clonazepam
"Alprazolam
"Lorazepam

Antidepressant Side Effects

"The most common side effects listed by the FDA include:

"Nausea and vomiting
"Weight gain
"Diarrhea
"Sleepiness
"Sexual problems

"Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms, especially if they are new, worsening, or worry you(U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2011):

Mental Health Medications: Antidepressants

"Antidepressants are medications commonly used to treat depression. Antidepressants are also used for other health conditions, such as anxiety, pain and insomnia. Although antidepressants are not FDA-approved specifically to treat ADHD, antidepressants are sometimes used to treat ADHD in adults.

"The most popular types of antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Examples of SSRIs include:

Receipt of Services among Adults in the US with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness [SMI] and Substance Use Disorder [SUD]

"Among the 3.6 million adults aged 18 or older in 2019 who had a co-occurring SUD and SMI in the past year (2019 DT 10.6), 66.6 percent (or 2.4 million people) received either substance use treatment at a specialty facility or mental health services in the past year, 52.0 percent (or 1.9 million people) received only mental health services, 12.7 percent (or 452,000 people) received both substance use treatment at a specialty facility and mental health services, and 1.9 percent (or 68,000 people) received only substance use treatment at a specialty facility (Figure 81 and 2019 DT 10.27).

Receipt of Services among Adults in the US with Co-Occurring Any Mental Illness and a Substance Use Disorder

"Among the 9.5 million adults aged 18 or older in 2019 who had a co-occurring SUD [Substance Use Disorder] and AMI [Any Mental Illness] in the past year (2019 DT 10.6), 48.6 percent (or 4.6 million people) received either substance use treatment at a specialty facility or mental health services in the past year, 38.7 percent (or 3.7 million people) received only mental health services, and 7.8 percent (or 742,000 people) received both substance use treatment at a specialty facility and mental health services (Figure 80 and 2019 DT 10.27).

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Lifetime DSM-5 Psychiatric Disorders among Veterans

"In this study, the highest levels of comorbidity (six or more comorbid conditions) among veterans were observed among treatment seekers. However, only those with comorbid DUD [Drug Use Disorders] were significantly more likely to seek treatment for PTSD once potentially confounding factors were accounted for. It is of concern that, in the present sample, 32% of veterans with PTSD who did not seek treatment had 6+ comorbid conditions.

Association Between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Lifetime DSM-5 Psychiatric Disorders among Veterans

"Overall, the prevalence of 6.3% for lifetime DSM-5 PTSD in U.S. veterans is lower than that reported in previous studies of era-specific (18.7% and 52%) (Dohrenwend et al., 2007; Ikin et al., 2010; Jakupcak et al., 2010) veteran cohorts but similar to a national sample of veterans (7.95%; Wisco et al., 2014) using previous diagnostic classifications. In part this may reflect the narrow definition used in the study. However, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD among veterans in this study was very similar to the prevalences of 6.4% and 7.8% reported for DSM-IV PTSD in the general U.S.

People in the US Receiving Mental Health Services Who Have a Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder, by Diagnosis

"In the 2015 reporting period, mental health diagnoses among individuals served who had co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders differed very little by substance use diagnosis. (Unlike mental health diagnoses, where up to three diagnoses are recorded per client record, each client record contains only one substance use diagnosis. See the final section of Appendix E for definitions of substance abuse codes.)

"• Bipolar disorders were the most frequently reported mental health diagnoses for individuals served who had co-occurring marijuana dependence (29 percent).

People in the US Receiving Mental Health Services Who Have a Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder, by Age and Gender

"For the 2015 reporting period, states reported a total of 720,987 individuals served aged 12 and older (14 percent of all individuals served) had co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders.

"During this period, the data show that mental health diagnoses differed somewhat across categories for several variables, including gender, age group, race, ethnicity, living arrangements, employment and detailed “not in labor force,” service setting, and timing of admission. Mental health diagnoses were largely similar across SMI/SED status and level of functioning.

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