(Drug Testing as Predictor of Marijuana Use) "Drug testing of any kind, including for cause or suspicion, was not a significant predictor of marijuana use. These results remained for all samples, even after controlling for student demographic characteristics."
Student drug testing
(Drug Testing as Predictor of Marijuana Use) "In the HLM (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) analyses for students in grades eight, 10, and 12, drug testing (of any kind) was not a significant predictor of student marijuana use in the past 12 months. Neither was drug testing for cause or suspicion."
Prevalence of Student Drug Testing Programs in the US: "For 1998 to 2011 combined, 14% of middle and 28% of high school students attended schools with any SDT; rates for for-cause testing were 10% and 22%, and for any random testing were 6% and 10% (see Table 1). If any for-cause testing had occurred, the volume of students tested in the current year averaged 6 per school for middle and 17 per school for high school students. If any random testing had occurred, the average number of students tested was 80 per school for middle and 178 per school for high school students. Within schools with any random SDT, testing had been in place for more than 3 years for more than half of students (66% middle school; 58% high school), for 2–3 years for approximately one-quarter of students (25% middle school; 29% high school), and implemented in the last or current school year for 9% of middle and 14% of high school students. Few students (2%) attended schools with random drug testing among all students."
Prevalence of Random Student Drug Testing in the US: "Recent national estimates indicate that 14 percent of U.S. public school districts conducted random drug testing in at least one of their high schools during the 2004–2005 school year (Ringwalt et al. 2008), and since 2003, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS) has operated a grant program to support MRSDT programs in schools."
Effectiveness of Drug Testing at Deterring Student Drug Use: "So, does drug testing prevent or inhibit student drug use? Our data suggest that, as practiced in recent years in American secondary schools, it does not.
Student Drug Testing and Supreme Court Precedents: "The Earls and Vernonia [U.S. Supreme Court] rulings show that minors have diminished privacy expectations relative to adults, especially when drug testing is implemented by individuals in a guardian or tutor capacity.
Prevalence of Drug Use and Risk of Drug Use by Students in the US: "Drug testing of students is more prevalent in schools where drugs are used, kept or sold than in schools that are drug free. While only 23 percent of drug-free schools drug test students, 38 percent of non-drug-free schools conduct some type of drug testing.
Deterrence Effect of School Drug Testing: "The deterrent effect of drug and alcohol testing was present for the index of past year illicit drug use and combined drug and alcohol use, each at two follow-up time points. If DAT were to have an impact, the expected deterrent effect likely would be that the policy would alter recent (e.g., past month) use of drugs or drugs and alcohol, since student-athletes were under the threat of testing during that time period, but not during the summer months. However, no differences were noted at any of the four follow-up time points for past month indices of use of drugs or use of drugs and alcohol. With 16 opportunities overall to demonstrate a substance-use deterrent effect during 2 years and four follow-up assessments (Table 3), only four effects were significant. The significant effects for past year drug use and alcohol and drug use were not independent, as both scales included drug use."
Student Drug Testing and Marijuana Use by Athletes in High School: "Drug testing of athletes was not a significant predictor of marijuana use by male athletes in high school."