(Medical Marijuana Laws Associated With Reduction in Traffic Fatalities) "Using population-based data from 1985 to 2014, we found that, first, states that enacted MMLs during the study period had lower fatality rates compared with states without MMLs. Second, on average, traffic fatalities further decreased in states post-MML, with both immediate (sudden change in fatality rate after MML enactment) and gradual (change in rate trend after MML enactment) declines over time in those aged 25 to 44 years.
Statistics and data relating to operating a vehicle while under the influence of an intoxicant (DUII), also referred to as drugged driving, drunk driving, driving under the influence (DUI), or driving under the influence of drugs (DUID).
(Prevalence of Use of Other Drugs by Drivers in the US, 2013) "The 2013–2014 study examined the use of drugs, focusing on drugs with the potential to impair driving skills, including over-the-counter, prescription, and illegal drugs. Participants were asked to provide an oral fluid and blood sample in addition to a breath sample. The oral fluid and blood samples were tested for the presence of a large number of potentially impairing drugs including cannabinoids, stimulants, sedatives, antidepressants, and narcotic analgesics.
(Estimated Risk Of Motor Vehicle Accident Associated With Marijuana Use) "Conducting case-control studies to estimate the risk of crash involvement from drug use presents many difficulties. The first challenge has been getting reliable and accurate estimates of drug use. Many studies rely on self-report (which have obvious inherent problems) rather than actual measurement of THC in blood or oral fluid.
(Estimated Risk of Motor Vehicle Accident Associated With Marijuana Use) "This study of crash risk found a statistically significant increase in unadjusted crash risk for drivers who tested positive for use of illegal drugs (1.21 times), and THC specifically (1.25 times). However, analyses incorporating adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and alcohol concentration level did not show a significant increase in levels of crash risk associated with the presence of drugs.
(Prevalence Trends Of Substances Detected Among Drivers In Fatal Auto Accidents, 1999-2010) "When time trends of nonalcohol drugs were examined by drug class, the prevalence of narcotics tripled during the study period, increasing from 1.8% in 1999 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.6) to 5.4% (95% CI: 4.4, 6.8) in 2010 (Z = ?7.07, P < 0.0001, Figure 2), and the increase occurred in both sexes (Table 1).
(Estimated Prevalence Of Substance Use Among Drivers In Fatal Auto Accidents) "Overall, 23,591 (90.9%) of the 25,951 drivers who died within 1 hour of a crash in these 6 states underwent toxicological testing. Drivers who were tested for drugs were similar in crash circumstances to those who were not tested, but they appeared to be slightly younger (mean age = 39.4 (standard deviation, 19.4) years vs. 43.4 (standard deviation, 27.7) years), more likely to be male (77.7% vs. 75.8%), more likely to be involved in nighttime crashes (51.4% vs.
(Odds Of Involvement In Fatal Auto Accidents Associated With Use Of Various Substances) "The prevalence of drugs detected in cases was higher than in controls across the drug categories (Table 3). Marijuana, narcotics, stimulants, and depressants were each associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal crash involvement, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 1.83 for marijuana to 4.83 for depressants (Table 3). Polydrug use, defined as use of two or more non-alcohol drugs, was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of fatal crash involvement (Table 3).
(Odds Ratio of Fatal Motor Vehicle Crash Associated With Various Substances) "The estimated odds ratios of fatal motor vehicle crashes associated with different drugs reported in this population-based case-control analysis are generally consistent with previous studies (Bedard et al., 2007; Brault et al., 2004; Laumon et al., 2005; Mathijssen and Houwing, 2005; Movig et al., 2004; Mura et al., 2003). For instance, in a case-control study conducted in the Netherlands, Movig et al.
(Evaluation of Draeger DrugTest 5000 for Detecting Drugs Through Oral Fluid) "DrugTest 5000 screening results were evaluated against Quantisal confirmation data to determine TP [True Positive], TN [True Negative], FP [False Positive], FN [False Negative], diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and efficiency at various cutoffs (Tables 1 and 2).
(Breath Testing for Other Drugs in DUI Enforcement) "The results of this investigation provide further support to the possibility of using exhaled breath as a readily available specimen for drugs of abuse testing. There is a possibility that exhaled breath will develop into a new matrix for routine drug testing and present an alternative to already used matrices like urine, blood, oral fluid, sweat and hair. Each matrix may have its specific advantages and disadvantages.