(Efficacy of Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone) "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the treatment efficacy of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Naltrel, DrugAbuse Sciences) for relapse prevention in 60 heroin-dependent individuals. Patients were stratified by sex and years of heroin use and randomized to receive placebo, 192 mg, or 384 mg of long-acting naltrexone intramuscular injections dosed on weeks 1 and 5. In addition to medication, patients received relapse prevention therapy and had urine monitored for drug relapse.
Methadone & Buprenorphine
Data, statistics and information about conventional opioid substitution therapy including methadone, buprenorphine and naltrexone
(Sustained Release Naltrexone Implants) "In order to overcome the issues of poor treatment adherence with oral naltrexone, a number of sustained-release implants have been developed internationally for use in alcohol and opioid dependence. A non-randomized retrospective review examined two types of sustained-release naltrexone implants, oral naltrexone, and historical controls revealed a significant difference between immediate and sustained-release injectable naltrexone in individuals opioid-free 12 months after initiating treatment.
(Growth in Availability and Utilization of Opioid Treatment Programs in the US) "In 2011, 9 percent of all substance treatment facilities had OTPs (Figure 1). This percentage has consistently been between 8 and 9 percent since 2001, when the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration began certifying OTPs.
(Effectiveness of Office-Based Buprenorphine Treatment) "Consistent with the findings of previous research with buprenorphine,1-4 the frequency of illicit opioid use decreased significantly from baseline to induction and was lowest during maintenance for all three groups.
(Regulation and Certification of Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs)) "Methadone, in use since 1964 for the treatment of opioid dependence, may be dispensed only in federally approved Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs). Treatment protocols require that a client take the medication at the clinic where it is dispensed daily.4 Take-home dosages are allowed only for clients who have been on an established maintenance program for an extended period of time.
(Buprenorphine Formulation) "Buprenorphine is a long-acting partial opioid agonist91,92 that is classified as a Schedule III narcotic, in contrast to methadone and levomethadyl, which are Schedule II. Its potential advantages include a higher degree of safety than with methadone, coupled with an ameliorated withdrawal syndrome. This is due to its partial agonist property at the ?-receptor along with its being a weak antagonist at the k-receptor.93-95 It is available in a tablet form for sublingual administration and in parenteral form.
(Barry McCaffrey on Methadone) "Science-based methadone maintenance treatment [MMT] helps those addicted to opiates sustain their recovery. The result is less crime, fewer emergency room admissions, more citizens working, and less suffering for families and the community. More individuals contribute in taxes instead of costing in health or imprisonment."
(Pain Patients in Methadone Treatment) "Pain was very prevalent in representative samples of 2 distinct populations with chemical dependency, and chronic severe pain was experienced by a substantial minority of both groups. Methadone patients differed from patients recently admitted to a residential treatment center in numerous ways and had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic pain (37% vs. 24%).
(Undertreated Chronic Pain and Development of Substance Dependence) "In our study, there was greater evidence for an association between substance use and chronic pain among inpatients than among MMTP [Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program] patients. Among inpatients, there were significant bivariate relationships between chronic pain and pain as a reason for first using drugs, multiple drug use, and drug craving. In the multivariate analysis, only drug craving remained significantly associated with chronic pain.
(Effectiveness of Buprenorphine Treatment) The Danish National Board of Health reported in 2000 that "The Buprenorphine project was initiated in the City of Copenhagen during the autumn of 1998 and was evaluated this year. In conclusion the report points out that this type of substitution therapy is suitable for clients who have not previously been subjected to methadone treatment and which are resourceful.