International

International — Drug Control Policies Around The World

Cost Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Programs

Cost Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Programs: "It was estimated that:
"• For every one dollar invested in NSPs, more than four dollars were returned (additional to the investment) in healthcare cost-savings in the short-term (ten years) if only direct costs are included; greater returns are expected over longer time horizons.
"• NSPs were found to be cost-saving over 2000-2009 in seven of eight jurisdictions and cost-effective in the other jurisdiction. Over the longer term, NSPs are highly cost saving in all jurisdictions.

Prevalence of Tobacco Use Among Young People in Australia

Prevalence of Tobacco Use Among Young People in Australia: "In 2014, 81% of all secondary students in Australia had no experience with smoking. While the proportion of students who had never smoked decreased with age, 61% of 17-year-olds had still never smoked.
"Around three per cent of all students had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, which peaked at eight per cent for 17-year-olds.
"The proportion of students smoking in the previous four weeks (past-month smokers) increased from one per cent of 12-year-olds to 17% of 17-year-olds.
"The proportion of students who were current smokers in 2014 increased from one per cent of 12-year-olds to 12% of 17-year-olds.

Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Young People in Australia

Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Youth in Australia: "Cannabis was the illicit substance most commonly used by secondary school students and prevalence was highest in the older age groups. Sixteen per cent of secondary students surveyed indicated they had used cannabis at some time in their lives with seven per cent using it in the past month and four per cent using it in the past week.
"In all recency periods the proportion of students using cannabis increased significantly with age (p<0.01).

Prevalence of Non-Medical Tranquilizer Use Among Young People in Australia

Prevalence of Non-Medical Tranquilizer Use Among Young People in Australia: "Around 17% of students had used tranquilisers other than for medical reasons at some point in their life. The proportions of students ever using tranquilisers increased from 13% of 12-year-olds to around 19% of 15- to 17-year-olds.
"Use in the past month was low in all ages and reached only five per cent among students aged 14 and over.
"Across all ages, around two per cent of secondary school students had used tranquilisers in the week before the survey.

Prevalence of Analgesic Use Among Young People in Australia

Prevalence of Analgesic Use Among Youth in Australia: "Regularity of use: Of students who had used analgesics in the past year, 54% of females and 43% of males had used analgesics 10 or more times in the previous year. Sixteen per cent of males and 10% of females reported use of analgesics only once or twice in the past year.
"Of the male students who had used analgesics in the past week, 71% had used them only once or twice, while 20% had used them 3-5 times. Of the female students who had used analgesics in the past week, 68% had used them once or twice and 22% had used them 3-5 times."

Estimated Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Youth in Australia

Estimated Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Youth in Australia: "Analgesics: Analgesics were the most commonly used substance (licit or illicit) with 95% of students aged 12 to 17 years having used an analgesic at some time in their lives. Females were more likely than males to use analgesics in all recency periods with for example 48% of females using analgesics in the week prior to the survey compared to 34% of males. The main reason for analgesic use was to help ease the pain associated with a headache/migraine (52%). For the majority of students (90%) parents were the main source of analgesics.

Political Support for Needle and Syringe Programs (NSPs) in Australia

Political Support for Needle and Syringe Programs (NSPs) in Australia: "Australia’s first NSP was trialled in New South Wales in 1986 with the provision of NSP services becoming New South Wales Government policy in early 1987 and the remaining states and territories implementing NSPs soon after via primary, secondary and pharmacy outlets (Dolan et al., 2005). This occurred following the discovery of HIV and the potential threat that this virus posed to the Australian community.

Cost Savings from Syringe Exchange in Australia

Cost Savings from Syringe Exchange in Australia:"In Australia the [Needle and Syringe] Program is the single most important and cost-effective strategy in reducing drug-related harms among IDUs. Australian Governments invested $130 million in NSPs between 1991 and 2000 resulting in the prevention of an estimated 25,000 HIV infections and 21,000 HCV infections, with savings from avoided treatment costs of up to $7.8 billion (Health Outcomes International et al., 2002). In the decade 2000-2009, the gross funding for NSPs was $243 million.

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