(The Science and Practice of Drug Treatment in Russia: Narcology) "The science and practice of drug treatment in Russia – narcology – developed out of psychiatry in close collaboration with other state mechanisms of social control, including police agencies (Elovich and Drucker, 2008). Close links between narcology and police agencies remain (Bobrova et al., 2006).
International — Drug Control Policies Around The World
(Cost to the Russian Economy from Drug-Related Corruption and Money Laundering) "Money laundering continues to cost the Russian economy billions of dollars every year. In 2012, the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) estimated that $49 billion left Russia illegally. Of this, $35 billion left Russia through what the CBR terms 'fictitious transactions,' which according to the CBR includes payment for narcotics, bribes to government officials, and tax evasion.
(Standard Opioid Substitution Treatment Unavailable in Russia) "In particular, Russian law forbids substitution therapy for opioid dependence with methadone or buprenorphine. Naltrexone is the only specific pharmacotherapy that is currently approved for use in the Russian Federation and is available as an oral tablet in extended-release formulations."
(Opiate Use in Russia, 2012) "In the Russian Federation, decreased availability of heroin has led to its partial replacement with local and readily available substances such as acetylated opium, as in Belarus, and with desomorphine, a homemade preparation made from over-the-counter preparations containing codeine.41"
(Attitudes in Spain Toward Legalization and Other Drug Policy Options) "As in previous years, the measure aimed at providing a solution to the drug problem which scored highest is the education provided at schools (backed by 91.8% of the population). The second most highly-supported measure is voluntary drug user treatment (84.9%), followed by police and Customs supervision (84.2%) (Table 2.51 and Fig. 2.50).
(Spain's Annual Drug Control Budget, 2010) "Through the different Ministerial Departments, the Central Government has invested a Budget of 136,649,268 euros, a total of 24,215,000 euros thereof having come from the Fund of Assets Seized for Illicit drug Trafficking or other related Offenses. This Fund has been operating since 1996 and is replenished by the cash and the goods seized as a result of final, non-appealable court decisions in proceedings for drug trafficking and other related offenses.
(Implementation of Spain's National Action Plan on Drugs) "Evaluation of the first Action Plan, 2009-2012 was begun in 2011 and continued on into 2012, having now been fully completed, although the results thereof have not as yet been made public.
(Role of Pharmacies in Harm Reduction in Spain) "Apart from the above, the role of the 1,526 pharmacies which have programmes of this type is also fundamental. These pharmacies participate in some cases in dispensing methadone and in other cases in the needle and syringe exchange programmes.
(Drug Consumption Rooms in Spain, 2010) "The objectives of the drug consumption facilities are:
"- To offer a target population comprised of intravenous drug users outside of the care-providing circuits preventive-educational interventions, emergency care and referral to other resources.
"- To reduce the most frequent infections, the transmission of HIV and viral hepatitis.
"- To identify emerging disorders.
"- To reduce the number and consequences (mortality) of acute drug reactions.
"- To facilitate access to the socio-sanitary networks.
(Legal Framework for Opioid Substitution Treatment in Spain) "In Spain, the legal framework of the methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) is regulated by way of the Royal Decree of January 19, 1990 and Royal Decree 5/1996. The legislative framework regulates the methadone-dispensing facilities in the different Autonomous Communities and Autonomous Cities and specifies that, in each one thereof, there shall be a Commission for the accreditation of the centres and services which take care of carrying out these programmes.