International — Drug Control Policies Around The World

Prevalence of High-Risk Behaviors Among Injection Drug Users in Central Asia

(Prevalence of High-Risk Behaviors Among Injection Drug Users in Central Asia) "The rapid spread of HIV among IDUs in central Asia has been aided by high prevalence of risky behaviours; 50–70% of IDUs share injecting equipment, purchase pre-filled syringes, or draw-up from common containers, and the use of condoms is low (table 4).6,32,34,52–55 Specific drug preparation practices might also increase risk, with blood used in the preparation of so-called vtoryak, a solution obtained by reprocessing materials after preparation of khanka; however, vtoryak w

Injection Drug Use and HIV in Central Asia

(Injection Drug Use and HIV in Central Asia) "There have been substantial increases in both trafficking and use of illicit drugs in central Asia, driven by its geographic position along drug-trafficking routes from Afghanistan, domestic opium production in the south of the sub-region, and prevailing socioeconomic conditions.6,14,21,41,42 Although injection of heroin or home-made opiates (eg, so-called khanka) predominates, stimulant injection has also substantially increased, with 69% of IDUs in one Kazakhstan study43 reporting methamphetamine us

HIV Prevalence in Central Asia

(HIV Prevalence in Central Asia) "Although there are fast-growing HIV epidemics across central Asia, Uzbekistan has the largest number of people with HIV and is experiencing a particularly deteriorating situation (table 2).1,16,21–23 The number of people newly diagnosed with HIV has increased more than 11 times in Uzbekistan between 2001 and 2006 compared with four times in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.24 Young people have been most affected by the HIV epidemic: in Uzbekistan 8413 (64%) of 13,146 cumulative HIV cases have been among people aged 34

Criminal Penalties in Romania for Drug Possession

(Criminal Penalties in Romania for Drug Possession) "In Romania drug laws set no threshold for personal possession; therefore, a person detained with traces of drugs may get a prison term from two to five years depending on the substance. Around 2,000 people are imprisoned each year for drug-related crimes, and the rate of people detained for drug crimes is increasing compared with other crimes. The cost of maintaining a person in prison is about $712 a month, or $8,544 a year. By comparison, methadone treatment costs $234 per month for one person88."

Drug Users in Kyrgyzstan Prisons

(Drug Users in Kyrgyzstan Prisons) "In Kyrgyzstan prisons, people who use drugs have no access to effective drug treatment in prison settings due to the low coverage of such services. With no alternatives, inmates often get involved in criminal activity in order to sustain drug use. Involvement in such gangs often continues after release, especially if an inmate has debts stemming from drug use87."

Drug Use and HIV in Prisons in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

(Drug Use and HIV in Prisons in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) "Incarceration often makes things worse. Drugs are widely available in most prisons, and HIV transmission is a serious risk given the difficulty in obtaining clean injecting material and other prevention commodities such as condoms. In Tajikistan, for example, the number of HIV cases in prisons is steadily rising. Personal testimonies indicate that heroin is fairly easy to find now in prisons81.