(Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in Sweden) "Alanko-Blomé and colleagues (Alanko-Blomé et al., 2011) have done a follow-up covering the years 1997-2005 of 831 IDUs at the NSP in Malmö. In view of the low HIV prevalence among IDUs in Malmö the study focuses on the incidence of surrogate markers of HIV - particularly hepatitis C, because the risk of HBV infection is affected by the introduction of hepatitis B vaccination. HIV incidence remained very low.
International — Drug Control Policies Around The World
(Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) Operating in Sweden) "In Sweden, a county council wishing to open a Needle Exchange Programme (NSP) must seek authorization from the National Board of Health and Welfare. One condition is that the programme be carried out in cooperation with a municipality. A well-functioning drug treatment unit must be present as a partner and the NSP should be run in close cooperation with either the county council ?s department for infectious diseases or the drug dependence department.
(Laws Regulating Narcotics in Sweden, 2012) "In Sweden, narcotic drugs are defined as drugs or goods dangerous to health, with addictive properties or that create a state of euphoria, or goods that can easily be converted to products with such properties or effects, and that, on such basis, are objects for control according to international agreements that Sweden has supported, or have been declared by the Government to be considered illicit drugs according to the law (SFS 1968:64).
(Cost-Effectiveness of Proposed Supervised Injection Facility in Montreal, Canada) "The model used here , predicted the number of new HIV and HCV cases prevented based on the needle sharing rate. This included the impact of behavioral changes in injection activities outside of the SIF. The behavioral change, according to Table 2 and Table 3, was only considered twice (once for the first SIF and later for the second SIF)—this modeling decision is apparent in the marginal number of new HIV cases averted in Tables 3, 4 and 5.
(Adoption of Alternative Approaches for Drug-Using Offenders) "The 16 February 201249 circular established new criminal policy strategies to be adopted by the judicial authorities. While reiterating the need to consider investigative elements that suggest simple use or narcotics addiction and the principle of proportionality with respect to the seriousness of the alleged offence, the February 2012 circular emphasises the need for systematic penal responses and increasingly effective judicial measures.
(French National Strategy Against Drugs) "The initial interministerial anti-drug plan dates back to 1983. The 2008-2011 'Government Action Plan Against Drugs and Drug Addiction' includes almost 200 measures for prevention, enforcement, health/social care, research, observation, training and international cooperation. Priority is given to preventing people from taking drugs from the get-go, since the age of first-time use is younger and younger. This targets young people and those close to them (such as parents and educators).
(Drug Offense Arrests in The Netherlands, 2011)
" There is an increase in the total number of police reports of Opium Act offences in 2011.
" There is an increase in both hard and soft drugs reports compared to 2010. The increase in soft drugs exceeds the increase in hard drugs offences. The number of reports of combinations of both hard and soft drugs has decreased. This type of cases forms a minority.
(Prevalence of Cocaine Use in South America) "The annual prevalence of cocaine use in South America (1.3 per cent of the adult population) is comparable to levels in North America, while it remains much higher than the global average in Central America (0.6 per cent) and the Caribbean (0.7 per cent).
(Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users in UK) "Combining the 2009/10 estimates for England, Scotland, Wales (Hay et al. 2011; ISD Scotland 2011; Welsh Government 2011a) and the most recent estimate for Northern Ireland for 2004 (Centre for Drug Misuse Research 2006) it is possible to derive an estimate for the United Kingdom of 383,534 problem drug users, a rate of 9.38 per 1,000 population aged 15 to 64 (Table 4.2)."
(Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users (PDUs) in Wales) "National PDU estimates for Wales for the period 2009/10 were published by the Welsh Government in October 2011 (Welsh Government 2011a; see UK Focal Point Report 2011). Regional differences were noted in the report across Health Board areas. The rate (per 1,000 population) ranged from 3.5 (95% CI 2.4 to 9.6) in the rural Powys area to 14.3 (95% CI 11.0 to 19.0) in the Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University (ABMU)123 area."