Canada

Subsections:

Page last updated June 9, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor/Senior Policy Analyst.

31. Supervised Injection Facilities and Overdose Rates

"The rate of overdose observed at the Vancouver SIF is within the range of rates observed in an international review of SIF which estimated the rates of overdose typically to be between 0.01 and 3.6 per 1000 injections (Kimber et al., 2005). However, the rate observed in Vancouver is lower than rates observed recently in Munster, Germany (6.4 per 1000 injections) and Sydney, Australia (7.2 per 1000 injections) (Kimber et al., 2003). This may reflect differences in threshold for coding and intervention by staff, and differences in drug consumption patterns across cities, especially as it pertains to the use of opioids and other central nervous system depressants."

Thomas Kerr, Mark W. Tyndall, Calvin Lai, Julio S.G. Montaner, Evan Wood, "Drug-related overdoses within a medically supervised safer injection facility," International Journal of Drug Policy 17 (2006) p.440.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu...
http://www.ijdp.org...

32. SIFs, Injection Cessation, and Entry to Treatment

"Among IDU who attended Vancouver’s supervised injecting facility, regular use of the SIF and having contact with counselors at the SIF were associated with entry into addiction treatment, and enrolment in addiction treatment programs was positively associated with injection cessation. Although SIF in other settings have been evaluated based on wide range of out-comes (Dolan et al., 2000; Kimber et al., 2003; MSIC Evaluation Committee, 2003), our study is the first to consider the potential role of SIF in supporting injection cessation. While our study is unique, our findings build on previous international analyses demonstrating a link between SIF attendance and entry into detoxification programs (Wood et al., 2006, 2007a; Kimber et al., 2008)."
"A postulated benefit of SIF is that, by providing a sanctioned space for illicit drug use, a hidden population of IDU can be drawn into a healthcare setting so that service delivery can be improved. The present study provides additional evidence that SIF appear to promote utilization of addiction services and builds on past evaluations to demonstrate that, through this mechanism,they may also lead to increased injecting cessation."

DeBeck, K., et al., "Injection drug use cessation and use of North America’s first medically supervised safer
injecting facility." Drug and Alcohol Dependence. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.07.023
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu...

33. Cost-Effectiveness of Proposed Supervised Injection Facility in Montreal, Canada

"The model used here [18], predicted the number of new HIV and HCV cases prevented based on the needle sharing rate. This included the impact of behavioral changes in injection activities outside of the SIF. The behavioral change, according to Table 2 and Table 3, was only considered twice (once for the first SIF and later for the second SIF)—this modeling decision is apparent in the marginal number of new HIV cases averted in Tables 3, 4 and 5. This calculation of behavioral impact is based on a conservative odds-ratio that falls within the limit specified by Kerr et al. (2005) [40].
"As expected, the results presented in Table 2 and Table 3 show that increasing the scope of SIFs through site expansion would result in a decrease of HIV infection cases. The model predicts: 14–53 fewer HIV cases and 84–327 fewer HCV cases annually, with the marginal range being much smaller: 5–14 fewer HIV cases and 33–84 fewer HCV cases annually.
"This range disparity, as outlined in Table 2 and Table 3, translates into substantial differences between the economic evaluation of SIFs with respect to the cumulative versus marginal estimates: the total effect of establishing SIFs and the effect of establishing each subsequent SIF, respectively.
"For example, according to Table 3, the cumulative annual estimates of new HIV cases averted, translates into a cost savings for society ranging from $0.764 million (benefit) for the first SIF to -$4.1 million (loss) for the seventh SIF. Benefit-cost ratios range from 1.35 to 0.73, and cost-effectiveness values range from $155,914 to $288,294 (cost per lifetime treatment). The cumulative annual estimates of new HCV cases averted translate into a cumulative cost savings that range from $0.769 million (benefit) for the first SIF to -$3.7 million (loss) for the seventh SIF. Benefit-cost ratios range from 1.35 to 0.73, and incremental cost-effectiveness values range from $25,986 to $46,727 (cost per lifetime treatment).
"In contrast, the marginal estimates of Montreal’s SIF expansion translate into a much smaller return. This is particularly true with respect to its benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness ratios. For instance, the marginal benefit-cost ratio varies from 1.35 to 0.77 for HIV and 1.35 to 0.76 for HCV. The marginal cost-effectiveness value for HIV ranges from $155,914 to $436,560 (cost per life- time treatment). The HCV marginal cost-effectiveness value ranges from $25,986 to $66,145 (cost per lifetime treatment)."

Jozaghi et al., "A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Montreal, Canada." Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2013 8:25. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-8-25
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm...

34. Annual Cost of Substance Use

Economics

"Measured in terms of the burden on services such as health care and law enforcement, and the loss of productivity in the workplace or at home resulting from premature death and disability, the overall social cost of substance abuse in Canada in 2002 was estimated to be $39.8 billion. This estimate is broken down into four major categories in Figure 1. This overall estimate represents a cost of $1,267 to every man, woman and child in Canada, as indicated according to substance in Figure 2.
"Tobacco accounted for about $17 billion or 42.7% of that total estimate, alcohol accounted for about $14.6 billion (36.6%) and illegal drugs for about $8.2 billion (20.7%) (see Table 2).
"Productivity losses amounted to $24.3 billion or 61% of the total, while health care costs were $8.8 billion (22.1%). The third highest contributor to total substance-related costs was law enforcement with a cost of $5.4 billion or 13.6% of the total."

J. Rehm, D. Baliunas, S. Brochu, B. Fischer, W. Gnam, J. Patra, S. Popova, A. Sarnocinska-Hart, and B. Taylor, "The Costs of Sustance Abuse in Canada 2002 - Highlights" (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, March 2006), p. 1.
http://www.ccsa.ca/Resource%20...

35. Retail Price of Heroin in the US, Canada and the UK

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

In the United States in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of black tar heroin ranged from $20 to $300 per gram; the retail price of South American heroin ranged from $25 to $400 per gram; and the retail price of southwest Asian heroin ranged from $120 to $300 per gram.

In Canada in 2014 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of opium ranged from $43 to $55.90 per gram; and the retail price of heroin ranged from $154.80 to $300.90 per gram.

In the UK in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of heroin number 2 (heroin base) ranged from $59.30 to $88.9 per gram.

Drug Prices Report: Opioids. Region: Americas. Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels, by drug, region and country or territory. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Data retrieved via UNODC Statistics at https://stats.unodc.org on June 1, 2018.
http://drugwarfacts.org/sites/...

36. Cost of Substance Abuse in Canada

"In 2006 a team of researchers published estimates of the social costs of substance abuse in Canada across several domains based on 2002 data (Rehm et al., 2006). Total costs of substance abuse for all substances (including tobacco) were estimated to be $39.8 billion in 2002, which translates into $1,267 per capita. Of this, approximately 39% are direct costs to the economy associated with health care, enforcement, prevention/research and 'other costs'6, and 61% are indirect costs associated mainly with productivity losses resulting from premature death and disability. Figure 2 depicts the estimated direct social costs associated with alcohol, illicit drugs and cannabis in 2002.
"Important findings from Figure 2 include the fact that (1) total direct social costs associated with alcohol ($7,427.5 million) are more than double those for all illicit drugs combined ($3,565.5 million); (2) direct alcohol-related health care costs ($3,306.2 million) are nearly three times as high as for all illicit drugs, excluding cannabis ($1,061.6 million), and over 45 times higher than the direct health care costs of cannabis ($73 million); and (3) annual direct costs for health care ($4,440.7 million) are 31 times higher, and annual direct costs for enforcement ($5,407.7 million) are 36 times higher than annual costs for prevention and research ($147.6 million)."

Thomas, Gerald and Davis, Christopher G., Comparing the Perceived Seriousness and Actual Costs of Substance Abuse in Canada: Analysis drawn from the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey," Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, March 2007), pp. 2-4.
http://www.ccsa.ca...

37. National Anti-Drug Strategy

Laws & Policies

"The National Anti-Drug Strategy is a horizontal initiative of 12 federal departments and agencies, led by the Department of Justice, with new and reoriented funding4 covering activities over a five-year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. The goal of the Strategy is to contribute to safer and healthier communities through coordinated efforts to prevent use, treat dependency, and reduce production and distribution of illicit drugs. Illicit drugs are defined in the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) to include opiates, cocaine and cannabis-related substances (including marihuana) as well as synthetic drugs such as ecstasy and methamphetamine. The Strategy encompasses three action plans: Prevention, Treatment and Enforcement:
"• The objectives of the Prevention Action Plan are to prevent youth from using illicit drugs by enhancing their awareness and understanding of the harmful social and health effects of illicit drug use; and to develop and implement community-based interventions and initiatives to prevent illicit drug use.
"• The objective of the Treatment Action Plan is to support effective treatment and rehabilitation systems and services by developing and implementing innovative and collaborative approaches.
"• The objective of the Enforcement Action Plan is to contribute to the disruption of illicit drug operations in a safe manner, particularly targeting criminal organizations.
"The Strategy‘s action plans are expected to contribute to a reduction in the supply of, and demand for, illicit drugs, which ultimately contributes to safer and healthier communities."

Government of Canada, "National Anti-Drug Strategy Implementation Evaluation - Final Report" (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Evaluation Division, Office of Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement, Dept. of Justice, May 2012), p. 1.
http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/r...
http://canada.justice.gc.ca/en...

38. Federal Role in Canadian Drug Control Policy

"The role of the federal government is described in key legislation and international conventions and protocols in areas relevant to the Strategy‘s activities. The federal government role in the Strategy is grounded in its authorities under the Constitution Act (1867) as well as key legislation, including CDSA; Criminal Code of Canada; Canada Health Act; Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act; and Youth Criminal Justice Act. Departmental legislative authorities of relevance include Canada Revenue Agency Act; Canada Border Services Agency Act; Corrections and Conditional Release Act; Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act; Department of Health Act; Department of Justice Act; Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act; Department of Public Works and Government Services Act; Director of Public Prosecutions Act; and Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. International conventions and protocols of relevance include the United Nations Narcotic Drug Conventions and other multilateral processes such as the OAS, the G8, the Paris Pact, and the Dublin Group.
"The federal government plays a critical role in addressing illicit drug issues at the broad policy level. For example, the Department of Justice led on introducing Bill C-10, which included mandatory minimum penalties for serious drug crime, and received royal assent on March 13, 2012. HC [Health Canada] is responsible for amendments under the CDSA to control the movement of certain substances in and out of Canada. This is particularly relevant for controlling and preventing the movement of illicit drugs as well as precursor chemicals which are used to make synthetic drugs (e.g. methamphetamine)."

Government of Canada, "National Anti-Drug Strategy Implementation Evaluation - Final Report" (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Evaluation Division, Office of Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement, Dept. of Justice, May 2012), p. 37.
http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/r...
http://canada.justice.gc.ca/en...

39. Perception of Seriousness of Substance Abuse Problems

"Our analyses suggest that public perceptions of the relative seriousness of substance abuse problems are incongruent with the actual costs they impose on Canadian society. In particular, the total social costs associated with alcohol are more than twice those for all other illicit drugs in 2002, yet the public consistently rated the overall seriousness of illicit drugs as higher at the national, provincial and local levels in the Canadian Addiction Survey (2004). Interpreting these findings it is possible to suggest that perceptions of the seriousness of illicit drugs are relatively amplified while perceptions of the seriousness of problems associated with alcohol are relatively attenuated in Canadian society."

Thomas, Gerald and Davis, Christopher G., Comparing the Perceived Seriousness and Actual Costs of Substance Abuse in Canada: Analysis drawn from the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey," Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, March 2007), p. 4.
http://www.ccsa.ca/Resource%20...

40. Cannabis in Canada

"RECOMMENDATIONS
"1. The severity of punishment for a cannabis possession charge should be reduced. Specifically, cannabis possession should be converted to a civil violation under the Contraventions Act.
"The current law involves considerable enforcement and other criminal justice costs, as well as adverse consequences to individual drug offenders, with little evidence of a substantial deterrent impact on cannabis use, and at best marginal benefits to the public health and safety of Canadians. As a minimal measure, jail should be removed as a sentencing option for cannabis possession. The available evidence indicates that removal of jail as a sentencing option would lead to considerable cost savings without leading to increases in rates of cannabis use. Punishing cannabis possession with a fine only would be consistent with current practices and prevailing public opinion."

Single, Eric, "Cannabis Control in Canada: Options Regarding Possession" National Working Group on Addictions Policy (Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, May 1998).
http://www.druglibrary.net...

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