Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS

36. Cost Effectiveness of Harm Reduction

"Prevention of HIV is also cheaper than treatment of HIV/AIDS. For example, in Asia it is estimated that the comprehensive package of HIV-related harm reduction interventions costs $39 per disability-adjusted life-year saved,14 whereas antiretroviral treatment costs approximately $2,000 per life-year saved. Such figures demonstrate that harm reduction is a low-cost, high-impact intervention."

"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), p. 12.

37. Global Estimated Drug-Related Mortality, 2011

"UNODC estimates that there were between 102,000 and 247,000 drug-related deaths in 2011, corresponding to a mortality rate of between 22.3 and 54.0 deaths per million population aged 15-64. This represents between 0.54 per cent and 1.3 per cent of mortality from all causes globally among those aged 15-64.20 The extent of drug-related deaths has essentially remained unchanged globally and within regions."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 10.

38. Global Expenditures

"Global expenditure on HIV/AIDS has increased substantially in the last decade, with total annual resources from all sources reaching over $11.3 billion in 2007 and $13.7 billion in 2008.37 Most of these resources are destined for low and middle income countries and include the expenditure allocated to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, treatment and support."

"The Global Fund [to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]’s annual HIV/AIDS disbursement was approximately $1 billion in 2007,39 $1.6 billion in 2008 and $2.8 billion in 2009.40 From 2002 to 2009 the Global Fund has approved a total grant amount of $10 billion for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care. For the 2008 to 2010 biennium, $9.7 billion has been pledged to the Global Fund for all activities by countries and private donors."41

"The total resources made available for HIV/AIDS increased from $7.9 billion in 2005 to $13.8 million in 2008. Nevertheless, there continues to be a resource gap. UNAIDS estimates that overall the funding needed in 2007 was $18 billion,45 indicating that resources need to be increased by about 60%."

"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), pp. 19-21.

39. Estimated Number and Prevalence of People Who Inject Drugs in 2014

"The joint UNODC/WHO/UNAIDS/World Bank estimate for the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) for 2014 is 11.7 million (range: from 8.4 to 19.0 million), or 0.25 per cent (range: 0.18-0.40 per cent) of the population aged 15-64. PWID experience some of the most severe health-related harms associated with unsafe drug use, overall poor health outcomes, including a high risk for non-fatal and fatal overdoses, and a greater chance of premature death.97 This is exacerbated by poor access to evidence-informed services for the prevention and treatment of infections, particularly HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis.98

"Eastern and South-Eastern Europe is the subregion with by far the highest prevalence of injecting drug use: 1.27 per cent of the population aged 15-64. The subregion accounts for almost one in four (24 per cent) of the total number of PWID worldwide; almost all PWID in the subregion reside in the Russian Federation and Ukraine. In Central Asia and Transcaucasia and in North America, the prevalence of injecting drug use is also high: 0.72 per cent of the population aged 15-64 in Central Asia and Transcaucasia; and 0.65 per cent in North America. Those three subregions combined account for 46 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide. Although the prevalence of injecting drug use in East and South-East Asia is at a level below the global average, a large number of PWID (27 per cent of the total number of PWID in the world) reside in the subregion, given that it is the most populated subregion. Three countries (China, Russian Federation and United States) together account for nearly half of the total number of PWID worldwide."

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2016 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.16.XI.7), p. 14.

40. AIDS Deaths in Local Jails in the US

From 2000 through 2014, a total of 569 people died from AIDS-related illnesses while serving time in a local jail in the US. Of those, 98 were white non-Latinx, 395 were black non-Latinx, 73 were Latinx, and 3 were "other."
In 2015, a total of 10 people serving time in local jails in the US died from AIDS-related illnesses.

Noonan, Margaret E., "Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2014 - Statistical Tables" (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016), NCJ250169, Tables 1 and 2, p. 5; Table 8, p. 10; and Table 21, p. 20.