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Prisons, Jails & Probation - Overview

  1. Basic Data

    (Rate of Adults Under Correctional Supervision in the US, 2012) “About 2,870 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents (or about 2.9% of adults) were under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2012 (table 1). The correctional supervision rate dropped below 2,900 per 100,000 adult residents for the first time since 2000, which was similar to the rate last observed in 1997 (2,860 per 100,000) when about 1.2 million fewer offenders were under correctional supervision (5.7 million).
    "After peaking in 2007 at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 adult residents, the rate of correctional supervision declined each year. Slightly more than half (52%) of the decrease from 2007 to 2011 was attributed to the decrease in the number of offenders under correctional supervision during the period. Less than half (48%) of the decline was due to the increase in the number of adult residents in the United States (not shown in table).1 In contrast, from 2011 to 2012 the increase in the adult resident population accounted for most (63%) of the decline in the correctional supervision rate, while 37% was due to the decline in the number of offenders under correctional supervision."

    Source: 
    Lauren E. Glaze and Erinn J. Herberman, PhD., "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2013), NCJ243936, p. 2.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus12.pdf

  2. (Adults in US Under Correctional Supervision, 2011) "At yearend 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders, down by about 51,000 offenders during the year (figure 1). The decrease observed during 2012 marked the fourth consecutive year of decline in the correctional population. However, this was the smallest decrease (down 0.7%) since the correctional population first declined in 2009, reversing a three-year trend of increasing rates of decline that started in 2009 and continued through 2011. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997."

    Source: 
    Lauren E. Glaze and Erinn J. Herberman, PhD., "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2013), NCJ243936, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus12.pdf

  3. (Number of Adults Supervised by the US Correctional System, 2012)

    Estimated Number of Persons Supervised by Adult Correctional Systems, By Correctional Status, 2000, 2005, 2010-2012
    Year
    Total Correctional
    Population

    Community Supervision

    Incarcerated

    Totala, c

    Probation

    Parole

    Total

    Jaild

    Prisone
    2000 6,461,000 4,565,100 3,839,500 725,500 1,938,500 621,100 1,317,300
    2005 7,050,400 4,946,800 4,162,500 784,400 2,195,000 747,500 1,447,400
    2010 7,079,500 4,887,900 4,055,500 840,700 2,270,100 748,700 1,521,400
    2011 6,978,500 4,814,200 3,971,300 853,900 2,240,600 735,600 1,505,000
    2012 6,937,600 4,781,300 3,942,800 851,200 2,228,400 744,500 1,483,900


    Note: Estimates were rounded to the nearest 100 and may not be comparable to previously published BJS reports due to updated information or rounding. Totals include estimates for nonresponding jurisdictions. See Methodology. Total community supervision, probation, parole, and prison custody estimates are for December 31; jail population estimates are for the last weekday in June.
    a: Estimates were adjusted to account for some offenders with multiple correctional statuses. See Methodology.
    b: Includes local jail inmates and prisoners held in the custody of state or federal prisons or privately operated facilities.
    c: Includes some offenders held in a prison or jail but who remained under the jurisdiction of a probation or parole agency.
    d: Totals are estimates based on the Annual Survey of Jails, except the total for 2005, which is a complete enumeration based on the Census of Jails Inmates. See appendix table 5 for standard errors and Methodology.
    e: Includes prisoners held in the custody of state or federal prisons or privately operated facilities. The custody prison population is not comparable to the jurisdiction prison population, which is BJS's official measure of the prison population. See text box on page 2 for a discussion of the differences between the two prison populations.

    Source: 
    Lauren E. Glaze and Erinn J. Herberman, PhD., "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2013), NCJ243936, Table 2, p. 3.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus12.pdf

  4. Inmates held in custody in the US in State or Federal Prisons or in Local Jails, by Type of Facility, 2007-2012
    Number of inmates
    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
    Total Inmates in Custody 2,293,157 2,308,390 2,291,912 2,266,832 2,240,600 2,228,400
    Federal Prisonersa
      Total 197,285 198,414 205,087 206,968 214,800 216,900
        Prisons 189,154 189,770 196,318 198,339 206,000 208,000
          Federal Facilities 165,975 165,252 171,000 173,138 176,200 176,500
          Privately Operated Facilities 23,179 24,518 25,318 25,201 29,800 31,500
        Community Corrections Centersb 8,131 8,644 8,769 8,629 8,800 8,900
    State Prisoners 1,315,291 1,324,420 1,319,391 1,311,136 1,290,200 1,267,000
      State Facilities NA NA 1,224,145 1,216,771 1,197,800 1,170,200
      Privately Operated Facilities NA NA 95,246 94,365 92,400 96,800
    Local Jailsc 780,581 785,556 767,434 748,728 735,600 744,500
    Incarceration Rated 756 756 743 731 720 710
      Adult Incarceration Ratee NA NA 981 962 940 920


    Note: Population counts were rounded to the nearest 100 and include imputed estimates for nonresponding jurisdictions; see Methodology. Rates were rounded to the nearest 10. Detail may not to sum to total due to rounding. Estimates may not be comparable to previously published BJS reports due to rounding or updated information. Total includes all inmates held in local jails, state or federal prisons, or privately operated facilities. Excludes inmates held in U.S. Territories (appendix tables 2 and 3), military facilities (appendix tables 2 and 4), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities, facilities contracted by the U.S. Marshals Service, jails in Indian country, or juvenile facilities. See Methodology for sources of incarceration data and the text box on page 2 for a discussion of the differences between the custody and jurisdiction prison populations.
    a: After 2001, responsibility for sentenced prisoners from the District of Columbia was transferred to the federal Bureau of Prisons.
    b: Nonsecure, privately operated community corrections centers.
    c: Counts for inmates held in local jails are for the last weekday in June of each year. Counts were estimated from the Annual Survey of Jails. See Methodology.
    d: The total number of inmates in the custody of local jails, state or federal prisons, or privately operated facilities within the year per 100,000 U.S. residents. Resident population estimates are from the U.S. Census Bureau for January 1 of the following year.
    e: The total number of inmates in custody within the year per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older. Adult resident population estimates are from the U.S. Census Bureau for January 1 of the following year.
    Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Annual Survey of Jails, and National Prisoner Statistics Program, 2000 and 2011–2012; the total and adult resident population estimates are based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s National Intercensal Estimates, 2001, and unpublished total and adult resident population estimates, January 1, 2012, and January 1, 2013.

    Source: 
    Lauren E. Glaze and Erinn J. Herberman, PhD, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2013), NCJ243936, Appendix Table 1, p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus12.pdf
    Glaze, Lauren E., "Correctional Population in the United States, 2010," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2011), NCJ 236319, Table 1, p. 3 and Table 2, p. 7.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus10.pdf
    Glaze, Lauren E., "Correctional Population in the United States, 2009," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2010), NCJ 231681, Table 1, p. 2 and Table 2, p. 7.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus09.pdf
    Heather C. West and William J. Sabol, PhD, "Prisoners in 2007" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2008), NCJ224280, Table 8, p. 6.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p07.pdf

  5. (Total Number of Adults In Prison In The US And Imprisonment Rate At Year-End 2013) "On December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700 persons in state and federal prisons, an increase of approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012. This was the first increase reported since the peak of 1,615,500 prisoners in 2009. Although state prisons had jurisdiction over an estimated 6,300 more prisoners at yearend 2013 than at yearend 2012, the increase in prisoners was partially offset by the first decrease (down 1,900 or 0.9%) in inmates under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) since 1980 (figure 1).
    "Prisoners sentenced to more than a year under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities increased by 5,400 inmates from 2012 to 2013. However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities decreased by less than 1% between 2012 and 2013, from 480 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in 2012 to 478 per 100,000 in 2013."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann. Prisoners In 2013. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sept. 2014, NCJ247282, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5109
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf

  6. (Number Of Persons In The US Serving Prison Sentences Rises, Yet Imprisonment Rate Falls) "The U.S. population grew at a faster rate in 2013 than the prison population, causing a decline in the imprisonment rates despite an increase in the number of sentenced prisoners. On December 31, 2013, the imprisonment rate for U.S. residents of all ages was 478 sentenced prisoners per 100,000, and for U.S. residents age 18 or older it was 623 per 100,000 (table 5). These rates decreased from yearend 2012 rates for both residents of all ages (480 per 100,000) and adult residents (626 per 100,000). The state imprisonment rates — the lowest of the past decade — remained unchanged between 2012 and 2013 at 417 per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages.
    "On December 31, 2013, 1.2% of adult males, and 0.9% of males of all ages, were serving sentences in state or federal prison. The imprisonment rate for adult males decreased from 1,201 per 100,000 in 2012 to 1,191 per 100,000 in 2013. The adult female imprisonment rate increased by 2% from 2012 to 2013, from 82 to 83 per 100,000. The imprisonment rates for both male and female prisoners declined from their peak rates in 2007."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann. Prisoners In 2013. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sept. 2014, NCJ247282, p. 6.
    http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5109
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf

  7. (Imprisonment Rates In The US By Race, Age, And Gender, 2013) "At yearend 2013, 17% of all inmates (253,800) were ages 30 to 34, while an estimated 2% (31,900) were age 65 or older (table 7). An estimated 58% of male inmates and 61% of female inmates in state or federal prison were age 39 or younger. Among males, white prisoners were generally older than black or Hispanic prisoners. An estimated 17,300 inmates age 65 or older (54%) were white males.
    "BJS uses race and Hispanic origin distributions from its 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities to adjust the administrative data from NPS to reflect self-identification of race and Hispanic origin by prisoners (see Methodology). On December 31, 2013, about 37% of imprisoned males were black, 32% were white, and 22% were Hispanic. Among females in state or federal prison at yearend 2013, 49% were white, compared to 22% who were black and 17% who were Hispanic.
    "Almost 3% of black male U.S. residents of all ages were imprisoned on December 31, 2013 (2,805 inmates per 100,000 black male U.S. residents), compared to 1% of Hispanic males (1,134 per 100,000) and 0.5% of white males (466 per 100,000) (table 8). While there were fewer black females in state or federal prison at yearend 2013 than in 2012, black females were imprisoned at more than twice the rate of white females.
    "Black males had higher imprisonment rates across all age groups than all other races and Hispanic males. In the age range with the highest imprisonment rates for males (ages 25 to 39), black males were imprisoned at rates at least 2.5 times greater than Hispanic males and 6 times greater than white males. For males ages 18 to 19—the age range with the greatest difference in imprisonment rates between whites and blacks — black males (1,092 inmates per 100,000 black males) were more than 9 times more likely to be imprisoned than white males (115 inmates per 100,000 white males). The difference between black and white female inmates of the same age was smaller, but still substantial. Black females ages 18 to 19 (33 inmates per 100,000) were almost 5 times more likely to be imprisoned than white females (7 inmates per 100,000)."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann. Prisoners In 2013. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sept. 2014, NCJ247282, p. 8.
    http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5109
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf

  8. (Adult Incarceration and Community Supervision Rates, 2012) "About 1,980 offenders per 100,000 adult residents were supervised in the community on probation or parole in 2012, a drop from 2,010 per 100,000 in 2011. By yearend 2012, the community supervision rate fell below 2,000 per 100,000 adult residents for the first time since 2000, which was similar to the rate last observed in 1997 (1,990 per 100,000). The incarceration rate also decreased between 2011 (940 inmates per 100,000 adults) and 2012 (920 per 100,000). About 1 in every 108 adults was incarcerated in prison or jail at yearend 2012, compared to about 1 in every 50 under community supervision."

    Source: 
    Lauren E. Glaze and Erinn J. Herberman, PhD., "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2013), NCJ243936, pp. 2-3.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus12.pdf

  9. (Decline in State & Federal Prisoners 2011-2012) "The number of prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year in federal or state prison, representing 96% of the overall prison population, decreased by 1.7% in 2012 (table 5). The number of sentenced federal prisoners declined slightly (down 0.2%) in 2012, while the total federal population increased. The increase was driven primarily by population increases among inmates without sentences or with sentences of 1 year or less (1,929, not shown in table). The number of sentenced state prisoners also declined, with 25,987 (down 1.9%) fewer sentenced inmates in 2012 than in 2011. California accounted for 57% of this decline. Overall, the number of sentenced male inmates in state or federal prison declined by 1.7% (down 24,109) from 2011 to 2012, and the number of sentenced female inmates decreased by 2.3% (down 2,354) during the same period.
    "Among the reporting jurisdictions, 25 out of the 47 states and the federal prison system showed declines in their sentenced prison population (table 6). Five states had decreases of more than 10% in their sentenced female prison population, while five others showed increases among females of more than 10% from 2011 to 2012. However, the majority of these states had a small overall prison population."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann, and Golinelli, Daniela, "Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2013), NCJ242467, p. 6.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p12ac.pdf

  10. (Jail Population in 2000 and 2009-2012) According to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics, US jails held 621,149 offenders in 2000; 767,434 offenders in 2009; 748,728 offenders in 2010; 735,601 offenders in 2011; and 735,983 offenders in 2012.

    (Note: According to BJS: "Counts for inmates held in local jails are for June 30 of each year. Counts were estimated from the Annual Survey of Jails.")

    Source: 
    Glaze, Lauren E., and Parks, Erika, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2011," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, November 2012), NCJ 239972, Appendix Table 1, p. 8.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus11.pdf
    Glaze, Lauren E., "Correctional Population in the United States, 2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, December 2011), NCJ 236319, Table 2, p. 7.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus10.pdf
    Minton, Todd D., "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, May 2013), NCJ 241264, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jim12st.pdf

  11. (US Population Under Community Supervision Declining) "During 2012, the number of adults under community supervision declined for the fourth consecutive year. At yearend 2012, an estimated 4,781,300 adults were under community supervision, down 40,500 offenders from the beginning of the year (figure 1). About 1 in 50 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2012. The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision. (See BJS definition of probation and parole.)
    "The decline in the total number of adults under community supervision is attributed to the drop in the probation population as probationers accounted for the majority (82%) of adults under community supervision. The decline of 38,300 offenders in the probation population (from an estimated 3,981,000 to 3,942,800) accounted for about 95% of the decline in the overall community supervision population. The parole population declined by about 500 offenders during 2012, falling from an estimated 851,700 to 851,200."

    Source: 
    Laura M. Maruschak and Thomas P. Bonczar, "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2012), NCJ243826, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ppus12.pdf

  12. (Cost of Incarceration) "Taxpayers spent about $68.7 billion in 2008 to feed, clothe, and provide medical care to prisoners in county jails, state and federal prisons and facilities housing legal and illegal aliens facing possible deportation.46 From 1982 to 2002, state and federal spending on corrections, not adjusted for inflation, rose by 423%, from $40 to $209 per U.S. resident.47 Corrections spending, as a share of state budgets, rose faster than health care, education, and natural resources spending from 1986 to 2001.48 The average cost of housing a prisoner for a year was about $24,000 in 2005, though rates vary from state to state.49"

    Source: 
    Kirchhoff, Suzanne M., "Economic Impacts of Prison Growth," Congressional Research Service, (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, April 13, 2010), p. 9.
    http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41177.pdf

  13. (Cost Savings by Shifting Offenders from Jail/Prison to Probation/Parole) "The calculations in Table 4 assume that for each non-violent offender shifted from prison or jail (at an average cost of about $25,500 to $26,000 per year) to probation or parole (at average cost of $1,300 to $2,800 per year), government corrections systems would save $23,000 to $25,000 per inmate per year. Given the mix of prisoners by offense type (see Table 3), a 50 percent reduction in non-violent-offender inmates would save the federal government about $2.1 billion per year, state governments about $7.6 billion per year, and local governments about $7.2 billion per year, even after factoring in additional probation and parole costs. Across all three levels of government, these savings total $16.9 billion or about 22.8 percent of the total national spending on corrections in 2008."

    Source: 
    Schmitt, John; Warner, Kris and Gupta, Sarika, "The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration," Center for Economic and Policy Research (Washington, DC: June 2010), p. 11.
    http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/incarceration-2010-06.pdf

  14. (Estimated Population of Young Adults in the US With a Parent Who Has Ever Spent Time in Jail or Prison) "The prevalence of any PI [Parental Incarceration] was 12.5% with the 95% confidence interval (CI) of 11.3% to 13.8%. The distribution of incarceration status by category was: neither parent (87.5%, 95% CI: 86.2%–88.7%), father only (9.9%, 95% CI: 8.9%–10.9%), mother only (1.7%, 95% CI: 1.4%–2.0%), and both parents (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.7%–1.2%). A significant association was found between race and PI. Black and Hispanic individuals had the highest prevalence of PI, 20.6% and 14.8%, compared with 11.9% for white individuals and 11.6% for those classified as other. Pairwise comparison indicated the black and white prevalence rates were significantly different."

    Note: Regarding study sample size: "The current study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a 4-wave longitudinal study following a nationally representative probability sample of adolescents in grades 7 through 12 in the 1994–1995 school year.46 The first 3 waves of Add
    Health data were collected from April to December 1995, from April to August 1996, and from August 2001 to April 2002. The fourth wave of data was collected in 2007 and 2008. The full sample for Wave 4 included 15 701 or 80.3% of the eligible participants from Wave 1. The response rates for Waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 79.0%, 88.6%, 77.4%, and 80.3%, respectively. The mean ages of participants during the 4 waves of data collection were 15.7 years, 16.2 years, 22.0 years, and 28.8 years, respectively.
    "The current study was based on 14,800 participants who were interviewed during Wave 1 and Wave 4 and have a sampling weight. Of the 15,701 participants who participated in both Wave 1 and Wave 4 interviews, 14,800 participants have a sampling weight at Wave 4 interview that could be used to compute population estimates. For data analysis, data describing participants’ sociodemographic characteristics from Wave 1 of the Add Health study were combined with Wave 4 self-reported health outcomes and PI history."

    Source: 
    Rosalyn D. Lee, Xiangming Fang and Feijun Luo, "The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults." Pediatrics 2013;131;e1188; originally published online March 18, 2013; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0627.
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/4/e1188.abstract
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/4/e1188.full

  15. (World Prison Population) "More than 10.2 million people are held in penal institutions throughout the world, mostly as pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners or as sentenced prisoners. Almost half of these are in the United States (2.24m), Russia (0.68m) or China (1.64m sentenced prisoners). In addition at least 650,000 are reported to be in pre-trial or ‘administrative’ detention in China and 150,000 in North Korea (D.P.R.K.); if these were included the world total would be more than 11 million."

    Source: 
    Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Tenth Edition)" (London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2013), p. 1.
    http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/prisonstudies.org/files/resources/dow...

  16. (World Prison Population Rates)
    "• The United States has the highest prison population rate in the world, 716 per 100,000 of the national population, followed by St Kitts & Nevis (714), Seychelles (709), U.S. Virgin Is. (539), Barbados (521), Cuba (510), Rwanda (492), Anguilla – U.K. (487), Belize (476), Russian Federation (475), British Virgin Is. (460) and Sint Maarten – Netherlands (458).
    "• However, more than half of countries and territories (54%) have rates below 150 per 100,000.
    "• The world population at the beginning of 2013 was about 7.1 billion (from United Nations figures); set against the world prison population of 10.2 million this produces a world prison population rate of 144 per 100,000 (155 per 100,000 if set against a world prison population of 11 million)."

    Source: 
    Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Tenth Edition)" (Kings College, London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2013), p. 1.
    http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/prisonstudies.org/files/resources/dow...

  17. (Prison Population Growth) "For the first time in nearly 40 years, the number of state prisoners in the United States has declined. Survey data compiled by the Public Safety Performance Project of the Pew Center on the States, in partnership with the Association of State Correctional Administrators, indicate that as of January 1, 2010, there were 1,404,053 persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 4,777 (0.3 percent) fewer than there were on December 31, 2008.1 This marks the first year-to-year drop in the state prison population since 1972.
    "In this period, however, the nation’s total prison population increased by 2,061 people because of a jump in the number of inmates under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The federal count rose by 6,838 prisoners, or 3.4 percent in 2009, to an all-time high of 208,118.
    "Prior to 1972, the number of prisoners had grown at a steady rate that closely tracked growth rates in the general population. Between 1925 (the first year national prison statistics were officially collected) and 1972, the number of state prisoners increased from 85,239 to 174,379.2
    "Starting in 1973, however, the prison population and imprisonment rates began to rise precipitously. This change was fueled by stiffer sentencing and release laws and decisions by courts and parole boards, which sent more offenders to prison and kept them there for longer terms.3 In the nearly five decades between 1925 and 1972, the prison population increased by 105 percent; in the four decades since, the number of prisoners grew by 705 percent.4 Adding local jail inmates to state and federal prisoners, the Public Safety Performance Project calculated in 2008 that the overall incarcerated population had reached an all-time high, with 1 in 100 adults in the United States living behind bars.5"

    Source: 
    Pew Center on the States, "Prison Count 2010: State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years," (Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts, April 2010), p. 2.
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/Abstract.aspx?id=259884
    http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2010/03/16/pri...

  18. (Prisons Over Capacity) "Overall, in 2010 state systems were operating between 1% under their highest capacity and 9% over their lowest capacity, compared to being exactly at high capacity and 15% over low capacity in 2000 (appendix table 23). (See capacity in Definitions of Terms).
    „„"Nineteen state systems were operating above their highest capacity, with seven states at least 25% over their highest capacity at yearend 2010, led by Alabama at 196% and Illinois at 144% (appendix table 23).
    "Twenty-eight state systems were operating at or below their highest capacity. Mississippi was operating at 46% of its highest capacity, followed by New Mexico (53%) and Utah and Wyoming (each at 79%).
    "The Federal Bureau of Prisons operated at 36% above reported capacity at yearend 2010."

    Source: 
    Guerino, Paul, Harrison, Paige M., and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2010" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ236096, Dec. 2011, p. 7.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p10.pdf

  19. (Prisons Over Capacity) "At yearend 2006, 23 States and the Federal system operated at more than 100% of their highest capacity. Seventeen States operated at between 90% and 99% of their highest capacity. The Federal prison system was operating at 37% above its rated capacity at yearend 2006.
    "By comparison, in 1995 States operated at 114% of their highest capacity and 125% of their lowest reported capacity. The Federal system was operating at 26% over reported capacity in 1995."

    Source: 
    Sabol, William J., PhD, Couture, Heather, and Harrison, Paige M., Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2006 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, December 2007), NCJ219416, pp. 5-6.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p06.pdf

  20. (Parents in Prison) "An estimated 809,800 prisoners of the 1,518,535 held in the nation's prisons at midyear 2007 were parents of minor children, or children under age 18. Parents held in the nation's prisons -- 52% of state inmates and 63% of federal inmates -- reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. resident population under age 18."

    Source: 
    Glaze, Lauren E. and Maruschak, Laura M., "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Aug. 2008), NCJ222984, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pptmc.pdf

  21. (Corrections Industry Workers) "The corrections sector is a large and growing part of the labor force. According to the Census Bureau, more than 770,000 people worked in the U.S. correctional industry in 2008.60 The U.S. Department of Labor, in its 2010-11 Occupational Outlook Handbook, estimates there were about 620,000 guards, probation officers, prison supervisors and court bailiffs in 2008.61"

    Source: 
    Kirchhoff, Suzanne M., "Economic Impacts of Prison Growth," Congressional Research Service, (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, April 13, 2010), p. 12.
    http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41177.pdf

  22. (Impact on Young People of Incarceration of Their Fathers) "Paternal incarceration, however, was found associated with a greater number of health outcomes than maternal incarceration. Also, paternal incarceration was found to be associated with both physical and mental health problems, whereas maternal incarceration was found associated only with poor mental health.
    "For paternal incarceration, with the exception of HIV/AIDS, larger associations were found for mental health as compared with physical health outcomes. Caution should be taken in understanding the significance of the finding related to HIV/AIDS, given its low overall sample prevalence and wide CI. If this is a true association, it may be related to paternal HIV/AIDS status and other risk factors related to father absence. Given the high correlation between HIV/AIDS and incarceration, increased odds of HIV/AIDS in offspring could come from perinatal transmission. However, social factors may also explain this relationship."

    Source: 
    Rosalyn D. Lee, Xiangming Fang and Feijun Luo, "The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults." Pediatrics 2013;131;e1188; originally published online March 18, 2013; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0627.
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/4/e1188.abstract
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/4/e1188.full

  23. (Physical and Mental Health Impact of Parental Incarceration on Their Children) "As shown in Table 2, bivariate analyses indicate PI [Parental Incarceration] was significantly associated with 8 of the 16 health conditions (heart disease, asthma, migraines, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], HIV/AIDS, and fair/poor health). With the exception of heart disease and HIV/AIDS, individuals who reported neither parent had an incarceration history had the lowest prevalence rates of these 8 health conditions. Individuals who reported father incarceration only had the highest prevalence rates of 3 of the 8 health conditions (heart disease, HIV/AIDS, and fair/poor health); whereas individuals who reported mother incarceration only were highest on 2 conditions (depression and anxiety) and individuals who reported incarceration of both parents were highest on 3 conditions (asthma, migraine, and PTSD)."

    Source: 
    Rosalyn D. Lee, Xiangming Fang and Feijun Luo, "The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults." Pediatrics 2013;131;e1188; originally published online March 18, 2013; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0627.
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/4/e1188.abstract
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/4/e1188.full

  24. (Adults Under Correctional Control) "With far less notice, the number of people on probation or parole has skyrocketed to more than 5 million, up from 1.6 million just 25 years ago. This means that 1 in 45 adults in the United States is now under criminal justice supervision in the community, and that combined with those in prison and jail, a stunning 1 in every 31 adults, or 3.2 percent, is under some form of correctional control. The rates are drastically elevated for men (1 in 18) and blacks (1 in 11) and are even higher in some high-crime inner-city neighborhoods."

    Source: 
    Pew Center on the States, "One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections," (Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts, March 2009), p. 1.
    http://www.pewstates.org/uploadedFiles/PCS_Assets/2009/PSPP_1in31_report...

  25. (Prison Population Growth) "Since sentenced prisoners made up 96% of the prison population in 2011, it was expected that the changes in the sentenced prison population in 2011 mirrored those in the total prison population. The total number of sentenced prisoners declined by 1.0%, and the sentenced prison population in the federal system increased by 3.4%. The sentenced state prison population declined by 1.6%.
    "Between 2010 and 2011, the imprisonment rate—the number of sentenced prisoners divided by the U.S. resident population times 100,000—declined from 500 to 492 per 100,000 U.S. residents (table 6). The imprisonment rate has declined consistently since 2007 when there were 506 persons imprisoned per 100,000 U.S. residents. The rate in 2011 was comparable to the rate observed in 2005 (492 per 100,000)."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann, and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2011" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2012), NCJ239808, p. 6.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf

  26. (International Incarceration Comparisons) "The U.S. incarcerates nearly 2.4 million people,13 including people held pretrial and those sentenced for an offense; if they were all in one state, it would be the 36th most populated, between New Mexico and Nevada.14 No other country in the world incarcerates as many people as the United States. China, a country of 1.3 billion people—about four times as many people as the U.S.15—is second, incarcerating 1.6 million people.16

    Source: 
    Petteruti, Amanda and Fenster, Jason, "Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations," Justice Policy Institute (Washington, DC: April 2011), p. 10-11.
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/finding_dir...

  27. (Growth in Imprisonment Rate, 2000-2007) "During 2007, the prison population increased more rapidly than the U.S. resident population. The imprisonment rate — the number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 residents — increased from 501 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in 2006 to 506 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in 2007. From 2000 through 2007, the imprisonment rate increased from 475 per 100,000 U.S. residents to 506 per 100,000 U.S. residents. During these seven years, the number of sentenced prisoners increased by 15% while the general population increased by 6.4%."

    Source: 
    Sabol, William J., PhD, and West, Heather C., Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2007 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, December 2008), NCJ224280, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p07.pdf

  28. (Sexual Violence in US Prisons and Jails, 2011-2012) "The estimated number of prison and jail inmates experiencing sexual victimization totaled 80,600 (or 4.0% of all prison inmates and 3.2% of jail inmates nationwide) (table 1).
    "Among all state and federal prison inmates, 2.0% (or an estimated 29,300 prisoners) reported an incident involving another inmate, and 2.4% (34,100) reported an incident involving facility staff. Some prisoners (0.4% or 5,500) reported sexual victimization by both another inmate and facility staff.
    "Among all jail inmates, about 1.6% (11,900) reported an incident with another inmate, and 1.8% (13,200) reported an incident with staff. Approximately 0.2% of jail inmates (2,400) reported being sexually victimized by both another inmate and staff."

    Source: 
    Beck, Allen J., PhD, Berzofsky, Marcus, DrPH, and Krebs, Christopher, PhD, "Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2013), NCJ241399, p. 8.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/svpjri1112.pdf

  29. (Allegations of Sexual Violence Against Inmates Reported by Adult Correctional Facilities in the US 2011) "In 2011, correctional administrators reported 8,763 allegations of sexual victimization in prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities (figure 1). About half (51%) involved allegations of nonconsensual sexual acts or abusive sexual contacts of inmates with other inmates, and half (49%) involved staff sexual misconduct or sexual harassment directed toward inmates. About 10% of the allegations (902) were substantiated based on follow-up investigation. While the number of allegations has risen since 2005 (6,241), the number substantiated has remained nearly unchanged (885 in 2005)."

    Source: 
    Allen J. Beck, PhD, Ramona R. Rantala, and Jessica Rexroat, "Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities, 2009-11" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2014), NCJ243904.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/svraca0911.pdf

  30. (Rates of Inmate-on-Inmate Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails)
    "• Rates of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization among prison inmates were higher among females (6.9%) than males (1.7%), higher among whites (2.9%) or inmates of two or more races (4.0%) than among blacks (1.3%), higher among inmates with a college degree (2.7%) than among inmates who had not completed high school (1.9%), and lower among currently married inmates (1.4%) than among inmates who never married (2.1%) (table 7).
    ƒƒ"• Similar patterns of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization were reported by jail inmates. Female jail inmates (3.6%), whites (2.0%), and inmates with a college degree (3.0%) reported higher rates of victimization than males (1.4%), blacks (1.1%), and inmates who had not completed high school (1.4%).
    ƒƒ"• Rates of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization were unrelated to age among state and federal prisoners, except for slightly lower rates among inmates age 55 or older.
    ƒƒ"• Rates were lower among jail inmates in the oldest age categories (ages 35 to 44, 45 to 54, and 55 or older) than among jail inmates ages 20 to 24."

    Source: 
    Beck, Allen J., PhD, Berzofsky, Marcus, DrPH, and Krebs, Christopher, PhD, "Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2013), NCJ241399, pp. 17-18.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/svpjri1112.pdf

  31. (Patterns of Prison and Jail Staff Sexual Misconduct) "The reported use or threat of physical force to engage in sexual activity with staff was generally low among all prison and jail inmates (0.8%); however, at least 5% of the inmates in three state prisons and one high-rate jail facility reported they had been physically forced or threatened with force. (See appendix tables 3 and 7.) The Clements Unit (Texas) had the highest percentage of inmates reporting sexual victimization involving physical force or threat of force by staff (8.1%), followed by Denver Women’s Correctional Facility (Colorado) (7.3%), and Idaho Maximum Security Institution (6.0%). Wilson County Jail (Kansas) led all surveyed jails, with 5.6% of inmates reporting that staff used physical force or threat of force to have sex or sexual contact.
    "While 0.8% of prison and jail inmates reported the use or threat of physical force, an estimated 1.4% of prison inmates and 1.2% of jail inmates reported being coerced by facility staff without any use or threat of force, including being pressured or made to feel they had to have sex or sexual contact. In 8 of the 24 facilities with high rates of staff sexual misconduct, at least 5% of the inmates reported such pressure by staff. Among state prisoners, the highest rates were reported by female inmates in the Denver Women’s Correctional Facility (Colorado) (8.8%) and by male inmates in the Clements Unit (Texas) (8.7%). Among jail inmates, the highest rates were reported by inmates in the Rose M. Singer Center (New York) (5.6%) and the Contra Costa County Martinez Detention Facility (California) (5.2%)."

    Source: 
    Beck, Allen J., PhD, Berzofsky, Marcus, DrPH, and Krebs, Christopher, PhD, "Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-2012" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2013), NCJ241399, p. 14.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/svpjri1112.pdf

  32. (Prison Growth) "The United States has adopted a set of criminal justice policies that has produced a tidal wave of imprisonment in this country. Between 1970 and 2005, the number of men, women, and children locked up in this country has grown by an historically unprecedented 700%. As a result, the United States locks up almost a quarter of the prisoners in the entire world. In fact, if all our prisoners were confined in one city, that city would be the fourth largest in the country."

    Source: 
    Alexander, Elizabeth, "Michigan Breaks the Political Logjam: A New Model for Reducing Prison Populations," American Civil Liberties Union (November 2009), p. 3.
    http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/2009-12-18-MichiganReport.pdf

  33. (Federal Prison Overcrowding) "The number of inmates held in BOP [Bureau of Prisons] facilities grew from 125,560 in FY200051 to 180,725 as of September 2011. From FY2000–FY2010, prison crowding grew from 32% over rated capacity to 37% over rated capacity, despite the fact that the number of facilities operated by BOP increased from 97 to 116. The growing federal prison population has not only resulted in more crowded prisons, but it has also strained BOP’s ability to properly manage and care for federal inmates."

    Source: 
    Sacco, Lisa N. and Finklea, Kristin M., "Synthetic Drugs: Overview and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, October 28, 2011), p. 12.
    http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42066.pdf

  34. (Justice System Growth 1982-2003) "The increase in justice expenditures over nearly 20 years reflects the expansion of the Nation's justice system. For example, in 1982 the justice system employed approximately 1.27 million persons; in 2003 it reached over 2.3 million.
    "Police protection
    "One indicator of police workload, the FBI's arrest estimates for State and local police agencies, grew from 12 million in 1982 to an estimated 13.6 million in 2003. The number of employees in police protection increased from approximately 724,000 to over 1.1 million.
    "Judicial and legal
    "The judicial and legal workload, including civil and criminal cases, prosecutor functions, and public defender services, also expanded during this period. Cases of all kinds (criminal, civil, domestic, juvenile, and traffic) filed in the nearly 16,000 general and limited jurisdiction State courts went from about 86 million to 100 million in the 16-year period, 1987-2003. The total of judicial and legal employees grew about 101% to over 494,000 persons in 2003.
    "Corrections
    "The total number of State and Federal inmates grew from 403,000 in 1982 to over 1.4 million in 2003. The number of local jail inmates more than tripled from approximately 207,000 in 1982 to over 691,000 in 2003. Adults on probation increased from over 1.4 million to about 4.1 million persons. Overall, corrections employment more than doubled from nearly 300,000 to over 748,000 during this same period."

    Source: 
    Hughes, Kristen A., "Justice Expenditure and Employment in the United States, 2003" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2006), NCJ212260, p. 7.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jeeus03.pdf

  35. (Parents in Prison) "Thirty-seven percent of parents held in state prison reported living with at least one of their children in the month before arrest, 44% reported just prior to incarceration, and 48% reported at either time (table 7). Mothers were more likely than fathers to report living with at least one child. More than half of mothers held in state prison reported living with at least one of their children in the month before arrest, compared to 36% of fathers. More than 6 in 10 mothers reported living with their children just prior to incarceration or at either time, compared to less than half of fathers.
    "Parents held in federal prison were more likely than those held in state prison to report living with a child in the month before arrest, just prior to incarceration, or at either time (appendix table 7). Mothers in federal prison were more likely than fathers to report living with a child."

    Source: 
    Glaze, Lauren E. and Maruschak, Laura M., "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Aug. 2008), NCJ222984, p. 4.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pptmc.pdf

  36. (Parents in Prison) "Mothers in state prison (58%) were more likely than fathers (49%) to report having a family member who had also been incarcerated (table 11). Parents in state prison most commonly reported a brother (34%), followed by a father (19%). Among mothers in state prison, 13% reported a sister and 8% reported a spouse. Six percent of fathers reported having a sister who had also been incarcerated; 2%, a spouse.
    "While growing up, 40% of parents in state prison reported living in a household that received public assistance, 14% reported living in a foster home, agency, or institution at some time during their youth, and 43% reported living with both parents most of the time (appendix table 11). Mothers (17%) held in state prison were more likely than fathers (14%) to report living in a foster home, agency, or institution at some time during their youth. Parents in federal prison reported lower percentages of growing up in a household that received public assistance (31%) or living in a foster home, agency, or institution (7%). These characteristics varied little by gender for parents held in federal prison.
    "More than a third (34%) of parents in state prison reported that during their youth, their parents or guardians had abused alcohol or drugs. Mothers in state prison (43%) were more likely than fathers (33%) to have had this experience. Fewer parents (27%) in federal prison reported having a parent or a guardian who had abused alcohol or drugs."

    Source: 
    Glaze, Lauren E. and Maruschak, Laura M., "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children" (Washington, DC: USDOJ, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Jan. 2009), NCJ222984, p. 7.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pptmc.pdf

  37. (Growth in State Spending on Corrections in the US) "State correctional spending patterns reflect the rise in the prison population that began in the early 1980’s and persisted until 2010.17 Expansion of the state prison population required increased spending for capital infrastructure, the state employee workforce, and the administrative needs of the judicial system. From fiscal 1986 to fiscal 2012, spending from state funds18 for corrections increased by 427 percent
    from $9.9 billion to $52.4 billion (without adjusting for inflation).19 By comparison, total spending from state funds increased by 315 percent over the same time period.
    "For many states, the effect of disproportionate growth in correctional spending led to a larger share of general fund dollars going to corrections. Since the mid 1980’s, the share of general fund budgets going to corrections doubled in 15 states and increased by at least half in 31 states.20 In the aggregate, corrections spending has gone from 4.7 percent of general fund spending in fiscal 1986 to 7.0 percent in fiscal 2012, an increase of 2.3 percentage points. This additional 2.3 percent of state general funds was equivalent to $15 billion in fiscal 2012.21
    "Corrections expenditures, as a percent of spending from total state funds, (general funds, other state funds and bonds), have remained more stable, and the rate of increase has been lower compared to the growth in general fund spending. Corrections spending as a share of state funds has gone from 3.6 percent in fiscal 1986 to 4.6 percent in fiscal 2012, an increase of 1 percent.22 This figure has
    remained more stable due to the rise in earmarked funds or trust funds in other program areas besides corrections that designate revenues for specific purposes set by statute. For example, higher education derives much of its state funding from designated revenue streams outside the general fund. To some extent, this trend may have insulated other program areas from budgetary pressures related to increased general fund spending for corrections."

    Source: 
    "State Spending for Corrections: Long-Term Trends and Recent Criminal Justice Policy Reforms," National Association of State Budget Officers (Washington, DC: NASBO, Sept. 11, 2013), p. 4.
    https://ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/Abstract.aspx?id=265707

  38. (State Expenditure Per Prison Inmate) According to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics, in 2010, state corrections institutions spent $37.3 billion to imprison a total of 1,316,858 inmates. BJS estimates that the mean expenditures per capita was $28,323. There was a wide range in state spending: the bottom 25th percentile averaged only $21,417, the 50th percentile averaged $29,094, and the 75th percentile averaged $40,175.

    Source: 
    Kyckelhahn, Tracey, "State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2012), NCJ239672, Table 2, p. 4.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/scefy8210.pdf

  39. (State Drug Reforms As Cost-Saving Mechanisms) "In general, states are targeting criminal justice reforms to address the cost drivers of correctional budgets in such a way that public safety is not put at risk. For example, 21 states have amended drug offense classification and penalties since 2010.26 Justice reforms that seek incarceration alternatives for drug offenders have demonstrated cost savings and improved outcomes, especially for non-violent drug offenders. Texas appropriated $240 million in the 2008-2009 biennium for correctional programs focusing on treatment, rehabilitation and enhanced local supervision and discretion. The state’s reforms led to $443 million in estimated savings that were utilized for other areas of the corrections budget.27 Justice reinvestment reforms are relying more on local government discretion as well, to enhance probation and parole oversight. Twenty states have enacted graduated sanctions for technical parole violations to help states reduce prison costs and the number of inmates.28
    "Despite the demonstrated successes of criminal justice reforms, cost savings have yet to produce an overall decline in corrections spending. However, the policy reforms are improving the way states spend money for corrections, and the outcomes show better results for individuals and citizens. Over time, the cost savings from smart, criminal justice polices may lead to correctional spending declines, an outcome that would benefit all of state government."

    Source: 
    "State Spending for Corrections: Long-Term Trends and Recent Criminal Justice Policy Reforms," National Association of State Budget Officers (Washington, DC: NASBO, Sept. 11, 2013), p. 5.
    https://ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/Abstract.aspx?id=265707

  40. (Growth in State Spending on Corrections, 1986-2001) "State spending for corrections increased from $65 per resident in 1986 to $134 in 2001 (table 1). Per capita expenditures for State prison operations alone rose from $49 in 1986 to $104 in 2001.
    "At an average annual increase of 6.2% for total State correctional spending and 6.4% specifically for prisons, increases in the cost of adult incarceration outpaced those of health care (5.8%), education (4.2%), and natural resources (3.3%).
    "Although correctional spending grew at a faster rate than many other State boards and programs (including court payments between 1986 and 2001, it remained one of the smaller cost items. For example, the outlay for education, at $374.5 billion, was nearly 10 times larger, and that for welfare, at $260.3 billion, was nearly 7 times larger."

    Source: 
    Stephan, James J., "State Prison Expenditures, 2001," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, June, 2004), NCJ202949, p. 2.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/spe01.pdf

  41. (Prison Population Growth Rates 1995-2005) "The rate of growth of the State prison population slowed between 1995 and 2001 and then began to rise. During this time the percentage change in the first 6 months of each year steadily decreased, reaching a low of 0.6% in 2001, and then rose to 1.0% in 2005 (table 2). The percentage change in the second 6 months of each year showed a similar trend, resulting in an actual decrease in State prison populations for the second half of 2000 and 2001.
    "Since 1995 the Federal system has grown at a much higher rate than the States, peaking at 6.0% growth in the first 6 months of 1999. In the first 6 months of 2005, the number of Federal inmates increased 2.3%, more than twice the rate of State growth."

    Source: 
    Harrison, Paige M. & Allen J. Beck, Allen J., PhD, US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005" (Washington DC: US Department of Justice, May 2006), p. 2.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pjim05.pdf

  42. (Sexual Violence in Prison) "In December 2000, the Prison Journal published a study based on a survey of inmates in seven men's prison facilities in four states. The results showed that 21 percent of the inmates had experienced at least one episode of pressured or forced sexual contact since being incarcerated, and at least 7 percent had been raped in their facility. A 1996 study of the Nebraska prison system produced similar findings, with 22 percent of male inmates reporting that they had been pressured or forced to have sexual contact against their will while incarcerated. Of these, over 50 percent had submitted to forced anal sex at least once. Extrapolating these findings to the national level gives a total of at least 140,000 inmates who have been raped."

    Source: 
    Human Rights Watch, "No Escape: Male Rape in US Prisons," (New York, NY: April 2001), p. 10.
    http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/hrw/hrwmalerape0401.pdf

  43. (Educational Level of Prisoners) "With the emphasis on law enforcement over education, it is no surprise that according to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy Prison Survey, 37 percent of people in U.S. prisons had not finished high school. Only 4 out of 10 (41 percent) had a high school education or GED equivalent; 74 percent had parents who had a high school education or less; and 26 percent had parents who did not finish high school.165"

    Source: 
    Lyons, Sarah & Walsh, Nastassia, "Money Well Spent: How positive social investments will reduce incarceration rates, improve public safety, and promote the well-being of communities," Justice Policy Institute (Washington, DC: September 2010), p. 31.
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/10-09_REP_MoneyWellSpent_PS-D...

  44. (Justice System Spending) "In 2003 the United States spent a record $185 billion for police protection, corrections, and judicial and legal activities. Expenditures for operating the Nation's justice system increased from almost $36 billion in 1982 to over $185 billion in 2003, an increase of 418%.
    "Local governments funded half of all justice system expenses. Another 33% of direct justice funding came from the States.
    "Total justice expenditures comprised approximately 7.2% of all State and local public expenditures in 2003. Compared to justice expenditures, State and local governments continued to spend almost 4 times as much on education, twice as much on public welfare, and roughly an equal amount on hospitals and healthcare."

    Source: 
    Kristen A. Hughes, "Justice Expenditure and Employment in the United States, 2003" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2004), NCJ212260, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/jeeus03.pdf

  45. (State Prison Costs, 2001) "Correctional authorities spent $38.2 billion to maintain the Nation’'s State correctional systems in fiscal year 2001, including $29.5 billion specifically for adult correctional facilities. Day-to-day operating expenses totaled $28.4 billion, and capital outlays for land, new building, and renovations, $1.1 billion.
    "The average annual operating cost per State inmate in 2001 was $22,650, or $62.05 per day. Among facilities operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, it was $22,632 per inmate, or $62.01 per day."

    Source: 
    Stephan, James J., "State Prison Expenditures, 2001," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, June, 2004), p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/spe01.pdf

  46. "We must have law enforcement authorities address the issue because if we do not, prevention, education, and treatment messages will not work very well. But having said that, I also believe that we have created an American gulag."

    Source: 
    Gen. Barry R. McCaffrey (USA, Ret.), Director, ONDCP, Keynote Address, Opening Plenary Session, National Conference on Drug Abuse Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, September 19, 1996, Washington, DC.
    http://archives.drugabuse.gov/meetings/CODA/Keynote2.html

  47. (Growth of Prison Population) "The prison population began to climb in the late 1970s as states and the federal government cracked down on crime. One turning point was New York State’s 1973 imposition of mandatory sentencing laws for drug offenses, under the administration of Gov. Nelson Rockefeller.40 Other states followed. Initiatives included mandatory sentences for repeat armed career criminals. Congress, in the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (18 U.S.C. 3651), repealed federal courts’ authority to suspend criminal sentences and made other changes.41 In 1994, California voters and legislators approved Proposition 184, the so-called Three Strikes Law. Among other things, the law set a minimum sentence of 25 years to life for three-time offenders with prior serious or violent felony convictions.42"

    Source: 
    Kirchhoff, Suzanne M., "Economic Impacts of Prison Growth," Congressional Research Service, (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, April 13, 2010), p. 7.
    http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41177.pdf

  48. Prisons & Jails - Federal Data

    (Average Cost of Federal Incarceration) "The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2009 was $25,251. The average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2009 was $24,758."

    Source: 
    "Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration," Federal Register, Vol. 76, No. 23, Thursday, February 3, 2011, p. 6161.
    http://www.bls.gov/green/frn_2011_02_03.pdf

  49. (Federal Bureau of Prisons Budget) "The FY 2013 budget request for BOP totals $6,919 million, which is a 4.2% increase over the FY 2012 Enacted. The request includes $6,820 million for Salaries and Expenses and $99.2 million for Buildings and Facilities. A rescission of $75.0 million in prior year construction balances is also proposed."

    Source: 
    "FY 2013 Budget Request At A Glance" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2012), p. 1.
    http://www.justice.gov/jmd/2013summary/pdf/fy13-bop-bud-summary.pdf

  50. State- and Local-Specific Data

    (State Spending on Corrections) "State spending on corrections reflects the costs to build and operate prison systems and may include spending on juvenile justice programs and alternatives to incarceration such as probation and parole. State spending for corrections totaled $53.2 billion in fiscal 2012, compared to $51.5 billion in fiscal 2011. In fiscal 2012, corrections spending represented 3.2 percent of total state spending and 6.9 percent of general fund spending. General fund dollars are the primary source for state corrections and account for $46.0 billion, or 86.3 percent, of all fiscal 2012 state corrections spending. State funds (general funds and other state funds combined, but excluding bonds) accounted for 96.6 percent of total state corrections spending in fiscal 2012. Federal funds accounted for 1.9 percent and bonds accounted for 1.5 percent. Federal funds for corrections declined by 34.5 percent in fiscal 2012, as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds began to expire. However, even with the sharp decline in federal funds, total state spending for corrections still grew by 3.3 percent, illustrating the fact that state correctional services are almost entirely financed by state funds.
    "State spending on corrections in fiscal 2013 is estimated to total $53.1 billion, a 0.3 percent decline from fiscal 2012. State funds are estimated to increase by 0.3 percent, while federal funds are estimated to decline by 11.7 percent. The slight decline in the overall growth rate is partly due to recent efforts states have taken to control corrections spending. From fiscal 1987 to fiscal 2012, nominal spending from state funds for corrections increased from $11.4 billion to $51.4 billion. Over the past several years, states have begun targeting criminal justice reforms to address the cost drivers of corrections expenditures. For example, according to a September 2013 NASBO issue brief, states have begun controlling costs through reducing recidivism rates, implementing changes to parole and probation systems, enhancing community supervision and drug treatment programs, and enacting sentencing reforms."

    Source: 
    National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "State Expenditure Report 2012: Examining Fiscal 2011-2013 State Spending," (Washington, DC: NASBO, 2013), p. 52.
    http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report.pd...

  51. (State Spending on Corrections)
    (2012) States spent $53.2 billion on Corrections in 2012. That year, states spent $171.8 billion on Higher Education and only $24.4 billion on Public Assistance.
    (2011) States spent $52 billion on Corrections in 2011. That year, states spent $171.8 billion on Higher Education and only $27.6 billion on Public Assistance.
    (2010) States spent $51.1 billion on Corrections in 2010. That year, states spent $164.8 billion on Higher Education and only $26.6 billion on Public Assistance.
    (2008) States spent $52 billion on Corrections in 2008. That year, states spent $158.2 billion on Higher Education and only $25.1 billion on Public Assistance.
    (2005) States spent $42.9 billion on Corrections in 2005. That year, states spent $131.2 billion on Higher Education and only $24.7 billion on Public Assistance.

    Source: 
    National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "State Expenditure Report 2012: Examining Fiscal 2011-2013 State Spending," (Washington, DC: NASBO, 2013), pp. 22, 30, and 52.
    http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/State%20Expenditure%20Report.pd...
    National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2010-2012 State Spending" (Washington, DC: NASBO, 2012), pp. 22, 30, and 52.
    http://www.nasbo.org/publications-data/state-expenditure-report/state-ex...
    National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "State Expenditure Report: Examining Fiscal 2009-2011 State Spending" (Washington, DC: NASBO, 2011), pp. 22, 30, and 52.
    http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/2010%20State%20Expenditure%20Re...
    National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "2008 State Expenditure Report," (Washington, DC: NASBO, Fall 2009), p. 23, Table 12; p. 35, Table 18; and p. 56, Table 32.
    http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/FY08%20State%20Expenditure%20Re...
    National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), "2005 State Expenditure Report," (Washington, DC: NASBO, Fall 2006), p. 23, Table 12; p. 35, Table 18; and p. 58, Table 32.
    http://www.nasbo.org/sites/default/files/er2005.pdf

  52. (State Prison Population and Violent Crime) "As state prison populations fell, so did the violent crime rate, which provides further evidence that increased incarceration does not mean more public safety. Concurrent with the 5.3 percent fall in violent crime in 2008-2009, state prison populations decreased 0.2 percent, the first population decrease since 2000.4 The number of people in prison is still growing, but at a slower rate than during the last few decades and primarily due to increases in federal prison system population.5 The 0.2 percent growth in the total U.S. prison population during 2009 was the third year of decline in the rate of growth and the slowest growth in eight years."

    Source: 
    Justice Policy Institute, "Crime fell in 2009, demonstrating states are safely reducing prison populations," (Washington, DC: September 2010).
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/10-09_FAC_FBI-UCR2009_PS-AC.p...

  53. (State Spending on Prisons vs. Higher Education) "In 1987, the states collectively spent $10.6 billion of their general funds—their primary pool of discretionary tax dollars—on corrections. Last year, they spent more than $44 billion, a 315 percent jump, data from the National Association of State Budget Officers show. Adjusted to 2007 dollars, the increase was 127 percent. Over the same period, adjusted spending on higher education rose just 21 percent."

    Source: 
    Pew Center on the States, "One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008," (Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts, February 2008), p. 4.
    http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2008/02/28/one...

  54. (Felony Convictions in State Courts) "In 2006, an estimated 1,205,273 persons were convicted of a felony (federal and state courts). Of that number, 1,132,290 were convicted in state courts, the vast majority (94 percent) of whom pleaded guilty. At the time of sentencing, about 3 out of 4 felons sentenced (77 percent) were sentenced for a single felony."

    The accompanying data table shows that 377,860 (33.4%) of these convictions were for Drug Offenses, of which 165,360 (14.6% of all convictions) were for Possession and 212,490 (18.8% of all convictions) were for Trafficking.

    Source: 
    Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012 (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, 2012), Table 346 Felony Convictions in State Courts: 2000 to 2006, p. 216.
    http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0345.pdf
    http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/law.pdf

  55. (Increase in State Prisons) "Over the last 25 years, the number of state facilities increased from just fewer than 600 to over 1,000 in the year 2000, an increase of about 70 percent. In other words, more than 40 percent of state prisons in operation today opened in the last 25 years."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 2.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  56. Sociopolitical Research

    (Incarceration and Crime Rates) "While it may seem obvious that locking up more people would lower the crime rate, the reality is much more complicated. Sentencing and release policies, not crime rates, determine the numbers of persons in prison. This point is illustrated by examining what happened to incarceration rates and crime rates nationally in the period from 1991-1998. This was a period in which crime rates fell but rates of incarceration continued to increase. During that time, the states that experienced below-average increases in their rate of incarceration actually experienced above-average decreases in crime. The three largest states offer useful examples: Texas experienced a 144% increase in incarceration with a 35% drop in crime rates, and California had a 44% rise in its incarceration rate with a 36% drop in crime rates. In contrast, New York saw its incarceration rate increase by only 24%, yet nonetheless experienced a drop in crime rates of 43%."

    Source: 
    Alexander, Elizabeth, "Michigan Breaks the Political Logjam: A New Model for Reducing Prison Populations," American Civil Liberties Union (November 2009), p. 4.
    http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/2009-12-18-MichiganReport.pdf

  57. (Cost Savings from Reducing the Incarceration Rate) "We calculate that a reduction by one-half in the incarceration rate of non-violent offenders would lower correctional expenditures by $16.9 billion per year and return the U.S. to about the same incarceration rate we had in 1993 (which was already high by historical standards). The large majority of these savings would accrue to financially squeezed state and local governments, amounting to about one-fourth of their annual corrections budgets. As a group, state governments could save $7.6 billion, while local governments could save $7.2 billion."

    Source: 
    Schmitt, John; Warner, Kris and Gupta, Sarika, "The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration," Center for Economic and Policy Research (Washington, DC: June 2012), p. 1.
    http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/incarceration-2010-06.pdf

  58. (Incarceration and Crime Reduction) "Incarceration has not been definitively shown to reduce crime rates. Bruce Western at Harvard University recently found that only 10 percent of the crime decline in the 1990s was due to increased use of incarceration.7 Between 1998 and 2007, states that had the greatest increases in incarceration rates did not necessarily see a corresponding drop in crime rates. Some states (Maryland Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas) lowered their incarceration rates and still experienced a drop in crime rates.8 Such uneven results do not support continued over-reliance on incarceration, particularly in a time of fiscal crisis."

    Source: 
    Justice Policy Institute, "Pruning Prisons: How Cutting Corrections Can Save Money and Protect Public Safety," (Washington, DC: May 2009), p. 5.
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/09_05_REP_PruningPrisons_AC_P...

  59. (Economic Incentive for Prison Construction) "The economic benefits of new prisons may come from the flow of additional state and federal dollars. In the decennial census, prisoners are counted where they are incarcerated, and many federal and state funding streams are tied to census population counts. According to the U.S. General Accounting Office (2003), the federal government distributes over $140 billion in grant money to state and local governments through formula-based grants. Formula grant money is in part based on census data and covers programs such as Medicaid, Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Social Services Block Grant (U.S. General Accounting Office 2003). Within a state, funding for community health services, road construction and repair, public housing, local law enforcement, and public libraries are all driven by population counts from the census."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 3.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  60. (Housing Prisoners in Other States) "The effect of prisoner location on population counts may also influence the allocation of political representation and, therefore, political influence (Haberman 2000). In Wisconsin, the number of state prisoners who were housed in other states (known as interstate transfers) caused concern because these prisoners would be counted in the decennial census in the states where they were incarcerated. In 1999, U.S. Representative Mark Green introduced a bill (unsuccessfully) that proposed changes to the census policy so Wisconsin prisoners held in other states would be counted as Wisconsin residents."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 3.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  61. (Economics of Prison Construction) "The few studies on the local economic impacts of prisons to date have not found significant positive impacts. For example, a study by the Sentencing Project challenges the notion that a new prison brings economic benefits to smaller communities. Using 25 years of data from New York State rural counties, the authors looked at employment rates and per capita income and found 'no significant difference or discernible pattern of economic trends' between counties that were home to a prison and counties that were not home to a prison (King, Mauer, and Huling 2003). According to a recent study by Iowa State University, many towns that made sizeable investments in prisons did not reap the economic gains that were predicted (Besser 2003). Another analysis in Texas found no impacts as measured by consumer spending in nearly three-fourths of the areas examined (Chuang 1998)."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 3.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  62. (Community Losses Due to Prisoner Relocation) According to a report on prison growth by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center, "Every dollar transferred to a "prison community" is a dollar that is not given to the home community of a prisoner, which is often among the country's most disadvantaged urban areas. According to one account, Cook County Illinois will lose nearly $88 million in federal benefits over the next decade because residents were counted in the 2000 Census in their county of incarceration rather than their county of origin (Duggan 2000). Losing funds from the "relocation" of prisoners is also an issue for New York City, as two-thirds of state prisoners are from the city, while 91 percent of prisoners are incarcerated in upstate counties (Wagner 2002a)."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 3.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  63. (Prison Construction Boom) "The prison construction boom was not concentrated in a few, key states or in certain regions of the country. Prison systems expanded significantly in states across the country. Prison systems also expanded within states. The share of counties in the top 10 states that were home to at least one prison increased from 13 to 31 percent between 1979 and 2000. State level maps (figures 13 to 22) illustrate that new prisons were geographically dispersed throughout the states. New prisons were generally not spatially concentrated, as few counties gained three or more prisons. Finally, prisons expanded into different types of counties; prisons increased significantly in both non-metro counties and metro counties."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 42.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  64. (Incarceration Far From Home) "Another issue related to prison expansion of the 1980s and 1990s is the disparity between where prisoners come from ("home counties") and where prisoners serve their sentences ("prison counties"). Many believe that the prison construction boom of the last 20 years happened in areas that were located far away from prisoners' homes. This has been an area of concern because greater distances between a prisoner's home and where he or she is incarcerated can negatively impact a prisoner and his or her family members. Being incarcerated far away from home makes it more challenging to maintain familial relationships and parent/child relationships in particular. In addition, challenges related to reintegrating into the community increase when a prisoner is housed far away from home. For example, steps that may facilitate prisoner reentry, such as finding a job and a place to live, are more difficult when a prisoner is imprisoned a long distance from the place to which he or she will return after release."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 33.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  65. (States with Greatest Prison Growth) "Figure 6 lists the top 10 states ranked from the highest growth to the lowest growth. They are Texas, Florida, California, New York, Michigan, Georgia, Illinois, Ohio, Colorado, and Missouri. The magnitude of prison growth in these 10 states is remarkable. Between 1979 and 2000, the number of additional prisons ranged from 19 prisons in Missouri to 120 prisons in Texas. The growth in Texas equates to an extraordinary average annual increase of 5.7 additional prisons per year over the 21-year period. As a group, the 10 states were operating more than three times as many prisons in 2000 as in 1979—increasing from 195 facilities to 604 facilities. Figure 6 shows the relative growth in each state in addition to the absolute growth. In all 10 states, the number of prisons increased by more than 100 percent over the two decades. States with the lowest relative growth are Florida, which grew by 115 percent, and New York, which grew by 117 percent. Texas is again the clear leader growing by 706 percent over the 21-year period. Indeed, Texas is in a league of its own, as it added the most prisons (120), currently has the largest number of prisons in operation (137), and experienced the largest percentage increase (706 percent)."

    Source: 
    Lawrence, Sarah and Jeremy Travis, "The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004), p. 9.
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

  66. (Suicide Risk in Jails) "Once they [people with drug addiction and mental health disorders] are incarcerated, researchers have found that the people’s reaction to jail conditions can exacerbate mental health problems and conditions that may increase their propensity towards suicidal behavior. Newly jailed people experience fear of the unknown, distrust of the environment, isolation from family and significant others, shame and stigma of incarceration, a loss of stabilizing resources and severe guilt or shame over the alleged offense. Current mental illness and prior history of suicidal behavior also intensify in the jail environment.150 These conditions and stressors conspire to increase the suicide rate in jails, as compared to the general population. Compared with a U.S. suicide rate of 17 per 100,000 people, the suicide rate in local jails is 47 per 100,000 people.151 Suicide is second only to illness in the leading cause of death in jails: 25 percent of all deaths in jails in 2006 were suicides.152"

    Source: 
    Justice Policy Institute, "Baltimore Behind Bars: How to Reduce the Jail Population, Save Money and Improve Public Safety (Washington, DC: June 2010), pp. 50-51.
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/10-06_REP_BaltBehindBars_MD-P...

  67. Private Prisons

    (Total Inmates Held in Private Prisons, 2011)
    "• The percentage of all prisoners housed in private prison facilities increased slightly in 2011 from 7.9% to 8.2% (appendix table 15)."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann, and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2011" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2012), NCJ239808, p. 13.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf

  68. (Number of State and Federal Inmates in Private Prisons)
    "• The number of prisoners in private facilities under the jurisdiction of state Departments of Corrections decreased by 1.8% between 2010 and 2011.
    "• The Federal Bureau of Prisons increased the number of inmates held in private prisons by 14% from 2010 to 2011.
    "On December 31, 2011, 6.7% of the state and 18% of the federal prison populations were incarcerated in private facilities."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann, and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2011" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2012), NCJ239808, p. 13.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf

  69. (Use of Private Prisons by Some States)
    "• Texas (18,603 inmates) and Florida (11,827 inmates) had the highest number of inmates in private prisons.
    „„"• North Carolina, Wisconsin, California, and Alabama each decreased the size of their private prison population by at least 45% from 2010 to 2011.
    "• Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and South Dakota incarcerated at least 17% more inmates in private facilities in 2011 than in 2010."

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann, and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2011" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2012), NCJ239808, p. 13.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf

  70. (Private Prison Costs) "Meanwhile, the benefit to counties where private prisons are built and operated can be quite scant — some receive less than $2 per prisoner per day from the private prison operator.119 The private prison companies themselves receive a far greater payoff from the government entity (such as a state corrections department) whose prisoners the company incarcerates. For example, private prison operators in Arizona were paid $63.52 per medium security prisoner per day in 2009,120 and as early as 2000, the federal government agreed to pay CCA almost $90 per day for each detained immigrant at a San Diego facility."

    Source: 
    Shapiro, David, "Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration," American Civil Liberties Union (New York, NY: November 2, 2011), p. 21.
    http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/bankingonbondage_20111102.pdf

  71. (Private Prison Industry) "Today, private companies imprison roughly 130,000 prisoners34 and, according to one group, 16,000 civil immigration detainees in the United States at any given time.35 As states send more and more people to prison, they funnel ever greater amounts of taxpayer money to private prison operators. By 2010, annual revenues of the two top private prison companies alone stood at nearly $3 billion.36"

    Note: The two prison companies named in this report are "Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) and the GEO Group (then called Wackenhut Corrections Corporation)."

    Source: 
    Shapiro, David, "Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration," American Civil Liberties Union (New York, NY: November 2, 2011), pp. 9 & 13.
    http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/bankingonbondage_20111102.pdf

  72. (Lobbying by Private Prison Companies) "Certain private prison companies, according to a recent report by Detention Watch Network, spend large sums of money to lobby the House of Representatives, the Senate, and several federal agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Prisons (which incarcerates over 200,000 prisoners at any given time) and the Department of Homeland Security (which detains over 30,000 immigrants at any given time).238 According to nonprofit groups, CCA alone spent over $18 million on federal lobbying between 1999 and 2009, 'often employing five or six firms at the same time,'239 and in 2010, CCA spent another $970,000 lobbying the federal government."

    Source: 
    Shapiro, David, "Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration," American Civil Liberties Union (New York, NY: November 2, 2011), p. 38.
    http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/bankingonbondage_20111102.pdf

  73. HIV/AIDS in Prison

    (Cases and Deaths in State and Federal Prisons) "At yearend 2010, state and federal prisons held a reported 20,093 inmates who had HIV or AIDS, down from 20,880 at yearend 2009. As a result of this decline, the estimated rate of HIV/AIDS among prisoners in custody dropped from 151 HIV/AIDS cases per 10,000 inmates in 2009 to 146 per 10,000 in 2010. The number of state and federal inmates who died from AIDS-related causes also declined between 2009 and 2010, from 94 to 72 deaths. During the same period, the rate of AIDS-related deaths among inmates with HIV/AIDS declined from 47 deaths per 10,000 inmates to 38 per 10,000."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2001-2010," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ 238877, Sept. 2012, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp10.pdf

  74. (Cases and Deaths in Inmate Population, 2001-2010) "Between 2001 and 2010, the estimated number of inmates with HIV/AIDS declined by 16%, and the number of AIDS-related deaths in prison declined by 77% (not shown in table) resulting in declines in the rates of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related deaths among all inmates and those with HIV/AIDS. At yearend 2001, the estimated rate of HIV/AIDS among state and federal prison inmates was 194 HIV/AIDS cases per 10,000 inmates. By yearend 2010, the estimated rate was 146 cases per 10,000. Among the total inmate population, the rate of AIDS-related deaths declined from 24 per 100,000 inmates in 2001 to 5 per 100,000 in 2010. Among the inmate population with HIV/AIDS, the rate declined from 134 AIDS-related deaths per 10,000 inmates in 2001 to 38 per 10,000 in 2010."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M., HIV in Prisons, 2001-2010 (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ238877, Sept. 2012, p. 2.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp10.pdf

  75. (HIV Prevalence Among State Prisoners by Drug Use) "The percentage of State prison inmates who were HIV positive was —

    "1.3% of those who never used drugs
    "1.7% of those who had ever used drugs
    "1.9% of those who used drugs in the month before their current offense
    "2.8% of those who had used a needle to inject drugs
    "5.1% of those who had shared a needle.

    "Like State inmates, Federal inmates who used a needle and shared a needle had higher rates of HIV infection than those inmates who reported ever using drugs or using drugs in the month before their current offense."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp04.pdf

  76. (HIV Prevalence Among Prisoners by Offense, 2004) "Inmates held on a property offense in State and Federal prisons had the highest HIV-positive rate (both 2.6%) (table 11). Among State inmates, public-order offenders (0.9%) were least likely to report being HIV positive; among Federal prisoners, drug offenders (0.7%) were least likely to report being HIV positive."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp04.pdf

  77. (HIV/AIDS Death Rate in Prisons, 2001-2010) "The rate of AIDS-related deaths in state prisons among inmates ages 15 to 54 declined sharply between 2001 and 2009, compared to the more modest decline observed among the same age group in the U.S. general population. As a result, the AIDS-related death rate in state prisons fell below the rate in the U.S. general population in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the AIDS-related death rate among state prisoners ages 15 to 54 declined from 22 deaths per 100,000 inmates to 6 per 100,000, while the rate among that age group in the general population declined from 9 per 100,000 to 7 per 100,000."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M., HIV in Prisons, 2001-2010 (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ238877, Sept. 2012, p. 3.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp10.pdf

  78. (HIV and AIDS Cases Among State and Federal Prisoners, 2010) "A reported 20,093 inmates with HIV/AIDS were in custody in state or federal prison at yearend 2010, down from 20,880 at yearend 2009 (table 1).
    "The reported number of state inmates with HIV/AIDS decreased from 19,290 in 2009 to 18,515 in 2010. The number of federal inmates with HIV/AIDS also declined, from 1,590 in 2009 to 1,578 in 2010.
    "California, Florida, New York, and Texas each reported holding more than 1,000 inmates with HIV/AIDS at yearend 2010. These states held 51% (9,492) of all state prisoners with HIV/AIDS.
    "Among state and federal inmates with HIV/AIDS at yearend 2010, 18,337 were male and 1,756 were female, compared to 19,027 male and 1,853 female inmates at yearend 2009 (table 2)."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M., "HIV in Prisons, 2001-2010" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ238877, Sept. 2012, p. 4.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp10.pdf

  79. (HIV/AIDS in Prison, 2005) "In each year since 1991, the rate of confirmed AIDS has been higher among prison inmates than in the U.S. general population, but the gap has been narrowing. At yearend 2005, the estimated rate of confirmed AIDS in State and Federal prisons was more than 21⁄2 times higher than in the general population (table 3). In 1999 it was nearly 5 times higher.
    "The shrinking difference between the rate of confirmed AIDS cases in prisons and the general population between 1999 and 2005 resulted from a decrease in the number of confirmed AIDS cases in prisons (down 20%) and an increase in cases (up 44%) among the general population."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2005," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ218915, Sept. 2007, p. 3.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp05.pdf

  80. (AIDS Deaths in Prisons by Region, 2005) "During 2005 an estimated 176 State inmates died from AIDS-related causes, down from 185 in 2004. For every 100,000 State inmates, 13 died from AIDS-related causes. AIDS-related deaths accounted for nearly 1 in 20 deaths reported in State prisons. New York reported the largest number of AIDS-related deaths (19), followed by Florida (17) and California (14). Relative to the number of inmates in custody, the Northeast reported the highest rate of AIDS-related deaths (28 per 100,000 inmates), followed by the South (13 per 100,000 inmates).
    "Among Federal inmates, 27 died from AIDS-related causes in 2005, up from 18 in 2004. For every 100,000 Federal inmates, 15 died from AIDS-related causes. AIDS-related deaths accounted for 7% of all deaths in Federal prisons."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2005," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ218915, Sept. 2007, p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp05.pdf

  81. (HIV in Jails) "Among jail inmates in 2002 who had ever been tested for HIV, Hispanics (2.9%) were more than 3 times as likely as whites (0.8%) and twice as likely as blacks (1.2%) to report being HIV positive."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj02.pdf

  82. (AIDS Deaths in Local Jails) "In 2002 the number of AIDS-related deaths in local jails was 42, down from 58 in 2000 (table 11). The rate of AIDS-related deaths was down from 9 per 100,000 inmates in 2000 to 6 per 100,000 in 2002. Of the 42 inmates who died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2002, 38 were male and 4 were female. Those who died from AIDS-related illnesses were most likely black (31 inmate deaths) and between the ages 35 and 44 (21 inmate deaths). Over the 3-year period beginning in 2000, a total of 155 local jail inmates died from AIDS-related causes."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj02.pdf

  83. (HIV Among Jail Inmates) "In personal interviews conducted in 2002, nearly two-thirds of local jail inmates reported ever being tested for HIV; of those, 1.3% disclosed that they were HIV positive."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj02.pdf

  84. Definitions and Other

    (Writ of Habeas Corpus) "By way of background, the writ of habeas corpus is a venerable legal procedure that allows a prisoner to get a hearing before an impartial judge. If the jailer is able to supply a valid legal basis for the arrest and imprisonment at the hearing, the judge will simply order the prisoner to be returned to jail. But if the judge discovers that the imprisonment is illegal, he has the power to set the prisoner free. For that reason, the Framers of the American Constitution routinely referred to this legal procedure as the 'Great Writ' because it was considered one of the great safeguards of individual liberty."

    Source: 
    Lynch, Timothy, "Doublespeak and the War on Terrorism," CATO Institute (Washington, DC: September 6, 2006), pp. 6-7.
    http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/bp98.pdf

  85. (Jails) "Jails, which are also primarily local in nature, detain not only persons arrested for local offenses, but also virtually all persons charged and awaiting trial under State law. Local jails may also house Federal detainees and State 'prison-ready' inmates — convicted and sentenced persons whose transfer to State prison is delayed by overcrowding or other reasons. In most such cases, State or Federal governments pay fees to the local communities that house these prisoners."

    Source: 
    "Use and Management of Criminal History Record Information: A Comprehensive Report, Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, December 2001), p. 8.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/umchri01.pdf

  86. (Probation)Probation is a court-ordered period of correctional supervision in the community, generally as an alternative to incarceration. In some cases, probation can be a combined sentence of incarceration followed by a period of community supervision.”

    Source: 
    Glaze, Lauren E., and Bonczar, Thomas P., "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, November 2011), NCJ 236019, p. 2.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ppus10.pdf

  87. (Parole)Parole is a period of conditional supervised release in the community following a prison term. It includes parolees released through discretionary or mandatory supervised release from prison, those released through other types of post-custody conditional supervision, and those sentenced to a term of supervised release.”

    Source: 
    Glaze, Lauren E., and Bonczar, Thomas P., "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, November 2011), NCJ 236019, p. 2.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ppus10.pdf

  88. (Pretrial Detention) "Pretrial detention is associated with a higher likelihood of both being found guilty35 and receiving a sentence of incarceration over probation,36 thus forcing a person further into the criminal justice system. In the United States, this is particularly important because of the sheer numbers: with 20 percent of the total number of people incarcerated being pretrial, that means nearly 500,000 people each year are more likely to be found guilty and sentenced to incarceration, thus significantly adding to the total number of people in prison."

    Source: 
    Petteruti, Amanda and Fenster, Jason, "Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations, Justice Policy Institute (Washington, DC: April 2011) pp. 15-17.
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/finding_dir...

  89. (Detention Until Trial) "In the U.S., when a person is charged with an offense they may be detained in jail until their trial or they may be released to await their trial in the community through a variety of mechanisms which will be discussed later. In many other nations, people are said to be “remanded,” which is a summons to appear before a judge at a later date. If they are not released pretrial they can be “remanded to custody” until their court proceeding; if they are convicted, they can be remanded to custody prior to sentencing or during an appeal process."

    Source: 
    Petteruti, Amanda and Fenster, Jason, "Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations, Justice Policy Institute (Washington, DC: April 2011), p. 16.
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/finding_dir...


  90. Number Of People Sentenced To Federal Prison, by Most Serious Offense
    Offense 1980 1990 2000 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share 2011 % Chg 2000-2011
                             
    TOTAL   19,471   56,989  131,739  182,333  187,886  190,641  197,050 100.0% +49.6%
    Violent   6,572 9,557 13,740 15,483 15,010 15,900 14,900 7.6% +8.4%
    Property   4,651 7,935 10,135 11,080 11,088 11,264 10,700 5.3% +11.1%
    Drug   4,900 30,470 74,276 95,079 96,735 97,472 94,600 48.0% +27.4%
    Public-order   2,040 8,585 32,325 59,298 63,714 65,873 69,000 35.0% +113.5%
    Other/unspecified   1,308 442 1,263 1,394 1,339 1,203 N/A N/A N/A
     


    • Violent Offense Categories: Homicide, Robbery, Other Violent
    • Property Offense Categories: Burglary, Fraud, Other Property
    • Public Order Offense Categories: Immigration, Weapons, Other Public Order

    Source: 
    Carson, E. Ann, and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2011" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2012), NCJ239808, Table 11, p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf
    Guerino, Paul; Harrison, Paige M.; and Sabol, William J., "Prisoners in 2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, December 2011), NCJ 236096, p. 30.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p10.pdf
    West, Heather C.; Sabol, William J.; and Greenman, Sarah J., "Prisoners in 2009," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, December 2010), NCJ 231675, Appendix Table 18, p. 33.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p09.pdf
    Beck, Allen J. and Harrison, Paige M., "Prisoners in 2000," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, December 2011), NCJ 188207, Table 19, p. 12.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p00.pdf
    Gilliard, Darrell K. and Beck, Allan J., "Prisoners in 1994," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, August 1995), NCJ 151654, Table 13, p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/Pi94.pdf


  91. Sentence Received by Convicted Offenders in Large Urban Counties
    By Most Serious Conviction Offense and Sentence Type, 2006
    Most Serious Conviction Prison Mean Prison Median Jail Mean Jail Median Probation Mean Probation Median
    All Offenses 49 mo 24 mo 6 mo 4 mo 31 mo 24 mo
    Felonies 49 mo 24 mo 6 mo 5 mo 33 mo 24 mo
    Violent Offenses 94 48 9 6 38 24
    Property Offenses 38 24 7 6 32 24
    Drug Offenses 34 24 5 3 32 36
    Public-order Offenses 33 24 6 5 34 24
    Misdemeanors ~mo ~mo 5 mo 4 mo 19 mo 12 mo
     

    ~ = Not applicable

    Source: 
    Cohen, Thomas H. and Kyckelhahn, Tracey, "Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2006," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, May 2010) NCJ 228944, Table 13, p. 13.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fdluc06.pdf

  92. Defendants Convicted and Sentenced to a Federal Prison Term by Type of Offense, 2009
    Offense Number Convicted Percent Sentenced to Prison Average Prison Term Imposed
    All Offenses 86,975 78.2% 57 Months
    All Felonies 78,974 83.8% 59 Months
    Violent Felonies 2,365 94.2% 113 Months
    Drug Felonies 25,874 91% 82 Months
    Property Felony - Fraud 9,765 63.7% 27 Months
    Property Felony - Other 1,373 50.1% 34 Months
    Public Order Felony - Regulatory 797 47.8% 37 Months
    Public Order Felony - Other 5,662 80.7% 67 Months
    Weapons 8,108 91.6% 87 Months
    Immigration 24,803 84.3% 21 Months
    Misdemeanors 8,001 23.6% 5 Months
     
    Source: 
    Motivans, Mark, "Federal Justice Statistics, 2009" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2011), NCJ234184, Table 11, p. 13.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fjs09.pdf