(Efficacy of E-Cigarettes in Tobacco Cessation and Dual Use of ENDS and Cigarettes) "Among adults, reductions in cigarettes per day were observed in several of the clinical studies83,84,86 and in 1 population-based study4 among those who did not quit. Reduction in cigarettes smoked per day could have benefit if it promotes subsequent cessation, as has been found with NRT,90 but this pattern has not yet been seen with e-cigarettes.
Tobacco and Nicotine
Tobacco and Nicotine
(Efficacy of E-Cigarettes in Tobacco Cessation) "In contrast to the assumption that e-cigarettes would function as a better form of NRT [Nicotine Replacement Therapy], population-based studies that reflect real-world e-cigarette use found that e-cigarette use is not associated with successful quitting; all4,79,80,82 had point estimates of the odds of quitting of <1.0.
(Health Effects of E-Cigarette Use) "In summary, only a few studies have directly investigated the health effects of exposure to e-cigarette aerosol, but some demonstrate the ability of e-cigarette aerosol exposure to result in biological effects. Long-term biological effects are unknown at this time because e-cigarettes have not been in widespread use long enough for assessment."
(Limitations of Some Research on Health Effects of E-Cigarettes) "National Vaper’s Club, a pro–e cigarette advocacy group, published a 'risk assessment' of e-cigarette and cigarette use that concluded that 'neither vapor from e-liquids or cigarette smoke analytes posed a condition of 'significant risk' of harm to human health via the inhalation route of exposure.'77 The authors failed to detect benzo(a)pyrene in conventional cigarette smoke despite the fact that it is an established carcinogen in cigarette smoke, and their assessment of conventional cig
(Health Effects of E-Cigarette Use (Electronic Nicotine Delivery System) Use) "Propylene glycol and glycerin are the main base ingredients of the e-liquid.
(Calls to US Poison Centers About Human Exposures to E-Cigarettes, 2010-2014) "During the study period, PCs reported 2,405 e-cigarette and 16,248 cigarette exposure calls from across the United States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. E-cigarette exposure calls per month increased from one in September 2010 to 215 in February 2014 (Figure). Cigarette exposure calls ranged from 301 to 512 calls per month and were more frequent in summer months, a pattern also observed with total call volume to PCs involving all exposures (5).
(E-Cigarettes (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems) Explained) "Electronic nicotine delivery devices such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine, flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, and chocolate), and other chemicals via an inhaled aerosol. E-cigarettes that are marketed without a therapeutic claim by the product manufacturer are currently not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1).*"
(Second-Hand Exposure From E-Cigarette (Electronic Nicotine Delivery System) Use)
(Estimated Global Market for E-Cigarettes (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)))
"THE ENDS MARKET
(Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or E-Cigarettes, Explained)
"PRODUCT DESIGN AND CONTENTS
"3. ENDS, of which electronic cigarettes are the most common prototype, deliver an aerosol by heating a solution that users inhale. The main constituents of the solution by volume, in addition to nicotine when nicotine is present, are propylene glycol, with or without glycerol and flavouring agents.