International — Drug Control Policies Around The World

Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among Canadians Aged 15 and Older

"The prevalence of past-year cannabis use among Canadians aged 15 years and older was 10.2% in 2012, unchanged from 9.1% in 2011, but lower than in 2004 (14.1%). There was an increase in past-year cannabis use among adults aged 25 years and older to 8.4% in 2012 from 6.7% in 2011, and no change from 2011 among youth aged 15 to 24 years. However, the prevalence of past-year cannabis use among youth (20.3%) remains higher than that of adults (8.4%). Youths initiated use of cannabis at an older age in 2012 than in 2011 (16.1 versus 15.6 years).

North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI)

North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI): "The North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) is a carefully controlled (clinical trial) that will test whether medically prescribed heroin can successfully attract and retain street-heroin users who have not benefited from previous repeated attempts at methadone maintenance and abstinence programs.
"The NAOMI study will enroll 470 participants at three sites in Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto. The Toronto and Montreal sites are expected to begin recruitment this spring.

Prevalence of Use of Drugs Other Than Marijuana Among Canadians Aged 15 and Older

Prevalence of Other Illicit Drug Use Among Canadians Aged 15 and Older, 2012: "In 2012, past-year use of the most commonly reported illicit drugs after cannabis was estimated to be about 1% for each (ecstasy (0.6%), hallucinogens including salvia (1.1%) and cocaine or crack (1.1%)). Past-year use of speed, methamphetamine or heroin is not reportable. There were no changes in prevalence of any of these drugs individually, between 2012 and 2011 or between 2012 and 2004.

Syringe Exchange Activity in Australia

Syringe Exchange Activity in Australia: The number of needles and syringes distributed in Australia increased during the past decade (from ~27 million to ~31 million). Expenditure on NSPs increased by 36% (adjusted for inflation) over this time period, mostly associated with personnel and not principally for equipment (Table a); a significant portion of the increased investment has been the Illicit Diversion Supporting Measures for NSPs to increase referrals to drug treatment and other services.

Hepatitis C and Injection Drug Use in Australia

Hepatitis C and Injection Drug Use in Australia "Approximately 83 per cent of HCV infections have resulted from unsafe injecting drug use practices. In Australia in 2006 it was estimated that approximately 264,000 people had been exposed to HCV and had HCV antibodies with around 197,000 living with chronic hepatitis C. The estimated number of new cases of HCV infection has declined from 16,000 per annum in 2001 to 10,000 in 2005. The majority (65 per cent) of people with HCV are aged between 20 and 39 years and 35 per cent of national notifications of HCV are in women.

Prevalence of Illegal Drug Use in Australia

Prevalence of Illegal Drug Use in Australia: "There was no change in recent use of most illicit drugs in 2013, and use of any illicit drug remained stable between 2010 and 2013. However, there was a significant change for a few specific drugs. The proportion of people who had misused a pharmaceutical rose from 4.2% in 2010 to 4.7% in 2013, whereas there were falls in the use of ecstasy (from 3.0% to 2.5%), heroin (from 0.2% to 0.1%) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB).

Drug Arrests, by Drug and Type

(Drug Arrests, by Drug and Type)
"• In 2009–10, cannabis accounted for the highest number of drug-related arrests. There were 57,170 arrests involving cannabis in 2009–10, an increase of three percent from 2008–09, but an overall decrease of 17 percent from the number of arrests recorded in 1996–97.