Pain Management

Related Chapters:
Addictive Properties
Heroin Assisted Treatment
Methadone Treatment
Opioid Crisis

Page last updated June 9, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor.

21. Tolerance of Opiates and Escalation of Effective Dosage

"During long-term treatment, the effective opioid dose can remain constant for prolonged periods. Some patients need intermittent dose escalation, typically in the setting of physical changes that suggest an increase in the pain (eg, progressive neoplasm). Fear of tolerance should not inhibit appropriate early, aggressive use of an opioid. If a previously adequate dose becomes inadequate, that dose must usually be increased by 30 to 100% to control pain."

"Treatment of Pain." The Merck Manual for Health Professionals. Merck & Co. Inc. Last accessed November 1, 2017.

22. Regulatory Barriers to Adequate Pain Care

"In the United States, many pain experts agree that physicians should prescribe opioids when necessary regardless of outside pressures as an exercise of their 'moral and ethical obligations to treat pain' (Payne et al., 2010, p. 11). For some time, observers have attributed U.S. patients’ difficulty in obtaining opioids to pressures on physicians from law enforcement and risk-averse state medical boards. Federal and state drug abuse prevention laws, regulations, and enforcement practices have been considered impediments to effective pain management since 1994, when the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (now the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ]) adopted clinical practice guidelines on cancer pain (Jacox et al., 1994a,b).
"Like AHRQ, the American Medical Directors Association (nursing home physicians) and American Geriatrics Society cite delays in access to prescribed opioids for nursing home patients, including those who are terminally ill, and the American Cancer Society has recognized the frequent inaccessibility of ­opioids necessary for treating some pain. The American Pain Society has developed evidence-based guidelines for controlling cancer pain, including the use of opioids when other treatments fail or when severe pain relief needs must be met immediately (Gordon et al., 2005). Fourteen years ago, the Institute of Medicine Committee on Care at the End of Life called for efforts to reduce regulatory barriers to pain relief at the end of life and termed some regulatory restrictions 'outdated and flawed' (IOM, 1997, p. 56)."

Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 145.

23. Risk of Opioid Medication Abuse by Pain Patients

"Opioid medications present some risk of abuse by patients as well. A structured review of 67 studies found that 3 percent of chronic noncancer pain patients regularly taking opioids developed opioid abuse or addiction, while 12 percent developed aberrant drug-related behavior (Fishbain et al., 2008). A recent analysis revealed that half of patients who received a prescription for opioids in 2009 had filled another opioid prescription within the previous 30 days, indicating that they were seeking and obtaining more opioids than prescribed by any single physician (NIH and NIDA, 2011)."

Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 146.

24. Prosecutions and Administrative Reviews Of Physicians For Offenses Involving The Prescribing Of Opiates

"We identified a total of 986 cases over the 1998–2006 study time frame in which physicians had been criminally charged and/or administratively reviewed with offenses involving the prescribing of opioid analgesics. 335 were criminal cases (178 state, 157 federal) and 651 were administrative cases (525 state medical board cases, 126 DEA administrative actions regarding CS registrations).

"Numbers and Specialties of Study Physicians

"The 725 individual physicians involved in these cases over the study time period represent 0.1% of the total 691,873 patient-care physicians active in 2003, or one out of 954 physicians.

"As shown in Table 1, General Practice/Family Medicine physicians comprised the largest proportion of physicians involved in the criminal and administrative cases (39.3%). Pain Medicine specialists, both self-identified and board certified, comprised 3.5% of the physicians involved in these cases."

Goldenbaum, Donald M.; Christopher, Myra; Gallagher, Rollin M.; Fishman, Scott; Payne, Richard; Joranson, David; Edmondson, Drew; McKee, Judith; Thexton, Arthur, "Physicians Charged with Opioid Analgesic-Prescribing Offenses" Pain Medicine (Glenview, IL: American Academy of Pain Medicine, September 2008) Volume 9, Issue 6, pp. 741.

25. Number Of Painkiller Prescriptions Written Annually In The US

"Prescribers wrote 82.5 OPR [Opioid Pain Reliever] prescriptions and 37.6 benzodiazepine prescriptions per 100 persons in the United States in 2012 (Table). LA/ER [Long-Acting or Extended Release] OPR accounted for 12.5%, and high-dose OPR accounted for 5.1% of the estimated 258.9 million OPR prescriptions written nationwide. Prescribing rates varied widely by state for all drug types. For all OPR combined, the prescribing rate in Alabama was 2.7 times the rate in Hawaii."

Leonard J. Paulozzi, MD1, Karin A. Mack, PhD2, Jason M. Hockenberry, PhD, "Vital Signs: Variation Among States in Prescribing of Opioid Pain Relievers and Benzodiazepines — United States, 2012," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 4, 2014, US Centers for Disease Control, p. 564.

26. Undertreatment of Pain More Common Among African-American Patients Than Whites

"Undertreatment of pain among African Americans has been well documented. For example, children with sickle-cell anemia (a painful disease that occurs most often among African Americans) who presented to hospital emergency departments (EDs) with pain were far less likely to have their pain assessed than were children with long-bone fractures (Zempsky et al., 2011).
"In general, moreover, a number of studies have shown that physicians tend to prescribe less analgesic medication for African Americans than for whites (Bernabei et al., 1998; Edwards et al., 2001; Green and Hart-Johnson, 2010). A study that used a pain management index to evaluate pain control found that blacks were less likely than whites to obtain prescriptions for adequate pain relief, based on reported pain severity and the strength of analgesics provided. Because such an index is a way to quantify a person’s response to pain medication alone, it is likely that people in this study did not receive other types of treatment for pain either."

Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 68.

27. Prevalence and Cost of Migraines

"Migraine headaches are a major public health problem affecting more than 28 million persons in this country.1 Nearly 25 percent of women and 9 percent of men experience disabling migraines.2,3 The impact of these headaches on patients and their families is tremendous, with many patients reporting frequent and significant disability.4 The economic burden of migraine headaches in the United States is also tremendous. Persons with migraines lose an average of four to six work days each year, with an annual total loss nationwide of 64 to 150 million work days. The estimated direct and indirect costs of migraine approach $17 billion.5,6 Despite the prevalence of migraines and the availability of multiple treatment options, this condition is often undiagnosed and untreated.7 About one half of patients stop seeking medical care for their migraines, in part because of dissatisfaction with the therapy they have received.4"

Aukerman, Glen; Knutson, Doug; and Miser, William F. M., "Management of the Acute Migraine Headache," American Family Physician (Shawnee Mission, KS: American Academy of Family Physicians, December 2002), Volume 66, Issue 11, p. 2123.

28. Global Pain Growth Projection

"In the future, the global need for pain medicine will increase rapidly. In developed and developing countries, the world’s population is aging, resulting in an increase of the prevalence of chronic, painful conditions and cancer. By 2025, there will be 1.2 billion people over the age of 60, which is double the current estimate of 600 million.14 Future demand for such care is also expected to rise due to the dramatically expanding prevalence of HIV/AIDS in several parts of the world. Tragically, the greatest need for pain relief is increasingly concentrated in developing countries, where access to morphine and other opioid analgesics is inadequate or non-existent. For example, WHO estimates that the burden of cancer will increasingly shift from industrialized countries to developing states, so that by the year 2020, 70 percent of the estimated 20 million new cancer cases will occur in developing states.15"

Taylor, Allyn L. "Addressing the Global Tragedy of Needless Pain: Rethinking the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs," Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Law Center, January 2008 ) Vol. 35, No. 556, p. 558.

29. Insurance Barriers to Adequate Pain Treatment

"Costly team care, expensive medications, and procedural interventions—all common types of treatment for pain—are not readily obtained by the 19 percent of Americans under age 65 who lack health insurance coverage (Holahan, 2011) or by the additional 14 percent of under-65 adults who are underinsured (Schoen et al., 2008). Together, these groups make up one-third of the nation’s population. Lack of insurance coverage also may contribute to disparities in care. An inability to pay for pain care is especially prevalent among minorities and women (Green et al., 2011). As discussed above, even for people with insurance coverage, third-party reimbursement systems tend not to cover or to cover well psychosocial services and team approaches that represent the best care for people with the most difficult pain problems. Surmounting this barrier may require coordinated action by advocates for improvement."

Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 156.

30. Prevalence Of Persistent Pain Among Adults In The US

"Approximately 19.0% of adults in the United States reported persistent pain in 2010, but prevalence rates vary significantly by subgroup (Table 1). Older adults are much more likely to report persistent pain than younger adults, with adults aged 60 to 69 at highest risk (AOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 2.7–5.8). Women are at slightly higher risk than men (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.7), as are adults who did not graduate from high school (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.7). Approximately half of adults who rated their health as fair or poor say they suffer from persistent pain (AOR = 4.7, 95% CI = 3.7–6.0). Recent hospitalization (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3–2.1) and obesity (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3–2.0) are also linked to higher rates of persistent pain. In contrast, Latino (AOR = .5, 95% CI = .4–.6) and African American (AOR = .6, 95% CI = .4–.7) adults are less likely to report persistent pain than their white counterparts."

Jae Kennedy, John M. Roll, Taylor Schraudner, Sean Murphy, and Sterling McPherson, "Prevalence of Persistent Pain in the U.S. Adult Population: New Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey," The Journal of Pain, Vol. 15, No. 10 (October), 2014, pp. 979-984.