Canada

Statistics and other data regarding drugs and drug policies in Canada, covering all areas including public safety/criminal justice, public health, harm reduction, treatment, and prevention.

Legalization of Marijuana for Adult Social Use

"When it will be legal
"The Cannabis Act (Bill C-45) has passed in the Senate. The Act is currently awaiting Royal Assent. It is not legal yet to buy, possess or use cannabis for anything other than authorized medical or research purposes.

"There will be a transition period following Royal Assent to prepare for coming into force for:
"- the federal government
"- provinces and territories
"- the regulated industry and
"- law enforcement
"- Law enforcement will continue to enforce existing laws."

Retail Price of Heroin in the US, Canada and the UK

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

In the United States in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of black tar heroin ranged from $20 to $300 per gram; the retail price of South American heroin ranged from $25 to $400 per gram; and the retail price of southwest Asian heroin ranged from $120 to $300 per gram.

In Canada in 2014 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of opium ranged from $43 to $55.90 per gram; and the retail price of heroin ranged from $154.80 to $300.90 per gram.

Comparison of Client Satisfaction Between Those Treated for Opioid Dependence With Oral Methadone Versus Injectable Heroin

(Comparison of Client Satisfaction Between Those Treated for Opioid Dependence With Oral Methadone Versus Injectable Heroin) "Among long-term chronic opioid injectors participating in a randomized clinical trial prescribing injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone and oral methadone, those receiving injectable medications were more satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, treatment satisfaction was also an indicator of retention in treatment, as well as treatment response, including a reduction in substance use.

Effectiveness of Heroin-Assisted Treatment Compared With Methadone Maintenance

(Effectiveness of Heroin-Assisted Treatment Compared With Methadone Maintenance) "Diacetylmorphine was found to be a dominant strategy over methadone maintenance treatment in each time horizon studied (Table 2). Over a lifetime horizon, people in the methadone cohort lived 14.54 years on average following entry into the model, spending 8.79 years (60% of their remaining life) in treatment and 5.52 years in relapse. They accumulated 7.46 discounted QALYs and generated a societal cost of $1.14 million.

Cost-Effectiveness of Proposed Supervised Injection Facility in Montreal, Canada

(Cost-Effectiveness of Proposed Supervised Injection Facility in Montreal, Canada) "The model used here [18], predicted the number of new HIV and HCV cases prevented based on the needle sharing rate. This included the impact of behavioral changes in injection activities outside of the SIF. The behavioral change, according to Table 2 and Table 3, was only considered twice (once for the first SIF and later for the second SIF)—this modeling decision is apparent in the marginal number of new HIV cases averted in Tables 3, 4 and 5.

Effect of Implementation of PDMP

(Effect of Implementation of PDMP) "Our analysis showed that the implementation of a province-wide centralized prescription network was associated with large, immediate and sustained reductions in filled prescriptions for opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines deemed inappropriate by our definition. These findings provide empirical evidence that centralized prescription networks can reduce inappropriate prescribing and dispensing of prescriptions by offering health care professionals real-time access to prescription data.

Federal Role in Canadian Drug Control Policy

(Federal Role in Canadian Drug Control Policy) "The role of the federal government is described in key legislation and international conventions and protocols in areas relevant to the Strategy‘s activities. The federal government role in the Strategy is grounded in its authorities under the Constitution Act (1867) as well as key legislation, including CDSA; Criminal Code of Canada; Canada Health Act; Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act; and Youth Criminal Justice Act.

Sharing of Injection Equipment in Canadian Prisons

(Sharing of Injection Equipment in Canadian Prisons) "Seventeen percent (17%) of inmates reported recently injecting drugs. A substantial proportion of these inmates increased their risk of acquiring a blood-borne infection (BBI) by using someone else’s used injecting equipment (see Table 4 for gender-specific estimates). Of those who recently injected drugs, 37% of inmates reported sharing a needle with a person with a positive or unknown BBI status and 42% reported using someone else’s works after they had used them.

Participation in Methadone Maintenance in Prisons

Harm Reduction

(Participation in Methadone Maintenance in Prisons) "At the time of the survey, 7% of all inmates reported being on MMTP. An additional 9% of all inmates reported not being on the program but previously trying to get on it at CSC. The remaining 84% of inmates reported never trying to join the program (63%), never using drugs (20%), and no longer needing the program (<1%).

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