United States

Current Legal Status of Kratom in the US

(Current Legal Status of Kratom in the US) "Although the findings of our literature and Internet searches strongly suggest a marked increase in kratom use in the United States and Europe, kratom still appears to be somewhat of an 'underground phenomenon.' During our searches of the literature and the internet, we found no evidence that kratom is currently marketed by any of the large nutritional supplement chain stores in the United States.

Current Use of Kratom in the US

(Current Use of Kratom in the US) "Evidence suggests that kratom is being used extensively for both medical and nonmedical purposes. Recent studies have shown that kratom contains a variety of active compounds that produce major pharmacologic effects at opioid and other receptors. Kratom and kratom-derived drugs may potentially be used for the management of pain, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and other clinical problems. At the same time, serious questions remain regarding the potential toxic effects and the abuse and addiction potential of kratom.

Clients Enter Drug Courts At Different Points In The Process Depending On The Court

(Clients Enter Drug Courts At Different Points In The Process Depending On The Court) "Problem-solving courts varied by the point at which they intervene in a case. Some courts took cases that had reached a specific processing stage, while others took on cases at multiple processing points. Additionally, problem-solving courts accepted multiple case types and identified different entry points for criminal or civil and family cases.

Services Offered by Syringe Services Programs / Syringe Exchange Programs

(Services Offered by Syringe Services Programs / Syringe Exchange Programs) "Despite differences in program size, operating budgets, and staffing among SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] in rural, suburban, and urban locations, there were similarities in on-site services (Table 3). Most SSPs offered HIV counseling and testing (87% among rural SSPs, 71% among suburban SSPs, and 90% among urban SSPs) and HCV testing (67% among rural SSPs, 79% among suburban SSPs, and 78% among urban SSPs).

Funds Forfeited and Held by Government Agencies in the US in 2014

(Funds Forfeited and Held by Government Agencies in the US in 2014) "Total financing sources realized by the Fund in FY 2014 were $3,777.3 million, an increase of $1,766.0 million compared to $2,011.3 million realized in FY 2013. This is the ninth year since inception of the Fund that it has exceeded $1 billion in deposits. In FY 2014 there were eight large fraud cases which yielded $3,502.9 million in forfeitures. Specifically, the Toyota and Bernard Madoff cases resulted in $2,900 million.

Jail Incarceration Rate in the US, 2015

(Jail Incarceration Rate in the US, 2015) "The jail incarceration rate—the confined population per 100,000 U.S. residents—decreased from a peak in 2006 through 2008 (260 per 100,000) to 230 per 100,000 at midyear 2015. These data are based on midyear counts, which includes the number of inmates held in custody on the last weekday in June. This was the lowest rate since midyear 2000 (220 per 100,000).

Number of Juveniles Held in Adult Jails in the US

(Number of Juveniles Held in Adult Jails in the US) "About 4,200 juveniles age 17 or younger were held in local jails at midyear 2014. They accounted for 0.6% of the confined population, down from 1.2% at midyear 2000. Nearly 90% or 3,700 juvenile inmates were tried or awaiting trial in adult court. The number of juveniles not charged as an adult declined by 74% between midyear 2010 and 2014 (from 1,900 to 500 inmates)."

More Than 60 Percent of People Held in US Jails Have Not Been Convicted

(More Than 60 Percent of People Held in US Jails Have Not Been Convicted) "Since 2005, more than 60% of all jail inmates were awaiting court action on a current charge. About 4 in 10 inmates were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. The growth in the overall jail inmate population since 2000 was due to the increase in the unconvicted population. Regardless of conviction status, about 68% of jail inmates in 2015 were held for a felony offense, and the remaining 32% were held for either misdemeanor (27%) or other offenses (5%) (not shown)."

Growth in Incidence of Hepatitis C Diagnoses in the US and Mortality Among HCV-Infected Persons

(Growth in Incidence of Hepatitis C Diagnoses in the US and Mortality Among HCV-Infected Persons) "After receiving reports of cases of acute hepatitis C ranging from 781-877 during the years 2006–2010, reported cases of acute HCV infection increased more than 2.5 times from 2010–2014. Cases of acute HCV infection rose annually, from 850 in 2010 to 1,232 in 2011, 1,778 in 2012, 2,138 in 2013, and 2,194 in 2014. The increase from 2010–2014 is thought to reflect both true increases in incidence and, to a lesser extent, improved case ascertainment.

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