"The risk of severe precipitated opioid withdrawal (POW) is amplified when precipitated by a long-acting opioid antagonist. IM [intramuscular] extended release naltrexone (XRNTX; Vivitrol®) is an FDA approved therapy to prevent relapse of opioid and alcohol abuse. Two cases of precipitated opioid withdrawal from XRNTX are presented that illustrate different patient reactions to POW. A 56-year-old woman developed a hypertensive emergency and required continuous intravenous vasodilator, clonidine, and intensive care monitoring after re-initiation of XRNTX following opioid relapse.
"The use of MC [Medical Cannabis] as an alternative to POMs [Prescription Opioid Medications] for pain management warrants additional empirical attention as a potential harm reduction strategy. NASEM (2017) recommends more clinical trials to elucidate appropriate MC forms, routes of administration, and combination of products for treating pain, but access to MC products to fully evaluate these questions is challenging due to federal regulations.
"24 states and the District of Columbia consider substance use during pregnancy to be child abuse under civil child-welfare statutes, and 3 consider it grounds for civil commitment.
"23 states and the District of Columbia require health care professionals to report suspected prenatal drug use, and 7 states require them to test for prenatal drug exposure if they suspect drug use.
Researchers performed a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 trial at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in the USA, which included service personnel who were 18 years or older, with chronic PTSD duration of 6 months or more, and who had a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-IV) total score of 50 or greater. They found that effective doses of MDMA that were administered in a controlled setting, along with adjunctive psychotherapy, were well tolerated and were effective at reducing the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Federal death penalty law: 18 USC § 3591(b)
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), in 2008-2009, an estimated 13.37% of young people in the US aged 12 through 17 had used marijuana in the past year, falling to 12.29% in 2015-2016. The NSDUH also estimates that, in 2008-2009, an estimated 7.03% of young people in the US aged 12 through 17 had used marijuana in the past month, dropping to 6.75% in 2015-2016.
"In 2016, an estimated 44.7 million adults aged 18 or older had AMI [Any Mental Illness] in the past year (Figure 54). This number represents 18.3 percent of adults in the United States. An estimated 10.4 million adults in the nation had SMI [Serious Mental Illness] in the past year, and 34.3 million adults had AMI excluding SMI in the past year. The number of adults with SMI represents 4.2 percent of adults in 2016, and the number of adults with AMI excluding SMI represents 14.0 percent of adults.