(Jail Incarceration Rate in the US, 2015) "The jail incarceration rate—the confined population per 100,000 U.S. residents—decreased from a peak in 2006 through 2008 (260 per 100,000) to 230 per 100,000 at midyear 2015. These data are based on midyear counts, which includes the number of inmates held in custody on the last weekday in June. This was the lowest rate since midyear 2000 (220 per 100,000).
(Number of Juveniles Held in Adult Jails in the US) "About 4,200 juveniles age 17 or younger were held in local jails at midyear 2014. They accounted for 0.6% of the confined population, down from 1.2% at midyear 2000. Nearly 90% or 3,700 juvenile inmates were tried or awaiting trial in adult court. The number of juveniles not charged as an adult declined by 74% between midyear 2010 and 2014 (from 1,900 to 500 inmates)."
(More Than 60 Percent of People Held in US Jails Have Not Been Convicted) "Since 2005, more than 60% of all jail inmates were awaiting court action on a current charge. About 4 in 10 inmates were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. The growth in the overall jail inmate population since 2000 was due to the increase in the unconvicted population. Regardless of conviction status, about 68% of jail inmates in 2015 were held for a felony offense, and the remaining 32% were held for either misdemeanor (27%) or other offenses (5%) (not shown)."
(Growth in Incidence of Hepatitis C Diagnoses in the US and Mortality Among HCV-Infected Persons) "After receiving reports of cases of acute hepatitis C ranging from 781-877 during the years 2006–2010, reported cases of acute HCV infection increased more than 2.5 times from 2010–2014. Cases of acute HCV infection rose annually, from 850 in 2010 to 1,232 in 2011, 1,778 in 2012, 2,138 in 2013, and 2,194 in 2014. The increase from 2010–2014 is thought to reflect both true increases in incidence and, to a lesser extent, improved case ascertainment.
(Prevalence of Tobacco Use in the US, 2013, According to NSDUH)
" In 2013, an estimated 66.9 million Americans aged 12 or older were current (past month) users of a tobacco product. This represents 25.5 percent of the population in that age range (Figure 4.1). Also, 55.8 million persons (21.3 percent of the population) were current cigarette smokers; 12.4 million (4.7 percent) smoked cigars; 8.8 million (3.4 percent) used smokeless tobacco; and 2.3 million (0.9 percent) smoked tobacco in pipes.
(Possible Masking Agent: Zinc Found to Produce False Negatives in ELISA [Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay] Tests) "We conclude that zinc ion (Zn2+) is a potential adulterant in urine samples tested for drugs in routine workplace drug screening under the NIDA-5 panel using ELISA. Its effect in causing potential false-negative results in drug testing is robust and reproducible. This effect appears independent of the mode by which zinc is made available in urine.
(Using Opioids for Treatment of Acute Pain) "Mild to moderate acute pain is often relieved by physical interventions—such as the application of ice, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), massage or stretching, and/or bracing—along with a mild analgesic such as an NSAID or acetaminophen. More severe pain often requires opioid therapy, which will be discussed in depth below.
(Efficacy of E-Cigarettes in Tobacco Cessation and Dual Use of ENDS and Cigarettes) "Among adults, reductions in cigarettes per day were observed in several of the clinical studies83,84,86 and in 1 population-based study4 among those who did not quit. Reduction in cigarettes smoked per day could have benefit if it promotes subsequent cessation, as has been found with NRT,90 but this pattern has not yet been seen with e-cigarettes.
(Efficacy of E-Cigarettes in Tobacco Cessation) "In contrast to the assumption that e-cigarettes would function as a better form of NRT [Nicotine Replacement Therapy], population-based studies that reflect real-world e-cigarette use found that e-cigarette use is not associated with successful quitting; all4,79,80,82 had point estimates of the odds of quitting of <1.0.
(Health Effects of E-Cigarette Use) "In summary, only a few studies have directly investigated the health effects of exposure to e-cigarette aerosol, but some demonstrate the ability of e-cigarette aerosol exposure to result in biological effects. Long-term biological effects are unknown at this time because e-cigarettes have not been in widespread use long enough for assessment."