United States

Rates of Diagnoses of Stage 3 HIV (AIDS) In The US, by Race/Ethnicity

Rates of Diagnoses of Stage 3 HIV (AIDS) In The US, by Race/Ethnicity: "From 2008 through 2012, rates decreased for all race/ethnicity groups: American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians, blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders, whites, and persons of multiple races. In 2012, the rates were 36.4 for blacks/African Americans, 15.2 for persons of multiple races, 10.2 for Hispanics/Latinos, 6.2 for Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders, 4.9 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, 3.5 for whites, and 2.7 for Asians.

People in Prison with Drug Addiction or Dependence

People in Prison with Drug Addiction or Dependence: "Violent offenders (47%) were the only offender group in State prisons with less than half meeting the DSM-IV criteria for drug dependence or abuse. Property and drug offenders (63% of each) were the most likely to be drug dependent or abusing.
"Drug offenders (52%) were the only group of Federal inmates with at least half meeting the drug dependence or abuse criteria. Property offenders (27%) reported the lowest percentage of drug dependence or abuse."

Number of People Serving Time in Federal Prison in the US, by Offense

"• Forty-seven percent (81,900) of sentenced federal prisoners on September 30, 2016 (the most recent date for which federal offense data are available) were serving time for a drug offense (table 14; table 15).
"• More than a third (38% or 65,900 prisoners) of federal prisoners were imprisoned for a public order offense, including 17% (28,800 federal prisoners) for a weapons offense and 8% (13,300) for an adjudicated immigration offense.

No Significant Effects from Exposure to Federal Antidrug Media Campaign

"Westat's analysis of the relationship between exposure to campaign advertisements and youth self-reported drug use in the NSPY [National Survey of Parents and Youth] data for the entire period covered by its evaluation -- assessments that used statistical methods to adjust for individual differences and control for other factors that could explain changes in self-reported drug use -- showed no significant effects of exposure to the campaign on initiation of marijuana by prior nonusing youth.

Opioid Use for Pain Management

"'Opioid' is a generic term for natural or synthetic substances that bind to specific opioid receptors in the CNS, producing an agonist action. Opioids are also called narcotics—a term originally used to refer to any psychoactive substance that induces sleep. Opioids have both analgesic and sleep-inducing effects, but the 2 effects are distinct from each other.

Methamphetamine Withdrawal

Methamphetamine Withdrawal: "Although no stereotypical withdrawal syndrome occurs when amphetamines are stopped, EEG changes occur, considered by some experts to fulfill the physical criteria for dependence. Abruptly stopping use may uncover or exacerbate underlying depression or precipitate a serious depressive reaction. Withdrawal is often followed by 2 or 3 days of intense fatigue or sleepiness and depression."