United States

Estimated Cost Savings From Use of Adult Drug Courts

Total Enrollees in Adult Drug Court Programs and Estimated Savings: The Drug Court Clearinghouse and Technical Assistance Project at the American University in Washington, DC, released the results of a survey of drug courts in 2001. Based on information reported by 372 of the 420 adult family drug court programs which were in operation as of January 1, 2001, DCC/TAP estimated:

Total Enrollees in Adult Drug Court Programs and Estimated Savings

Purpose of Drug Courts

"The primary purpose of these [drug court] programs is to use a court's authority to reduce crime by changing defendants’ substance abuse behavior. In exchange for the possibility of dismissed charges or reduced sentences, eligible defendants who agree to participate are diverted to drug court programs in various ways and at various stages in the judicial process. These programs are typically offered to defendants as an alternative to probation or short-term incarceration."

Total Annual Drug Arrests In The United States By Offense Type

Total Annual Drug Arrests in the US, by Type, as reported by the FBI's annual Uniform Crime Report
2016: The FBI estimated that there were 1,572,579 arrests for drug law violations in the US in 2016. The FBI, for the first time in many years, did not provide a breakdown of that figure by offense type. In an analysis of a subset of the UCR's arrest data, police agencies in the US covering an estimated 2016 population of 250,017,636 people reported a total of 1,186,810 arrests for drug law violations, of which 84.7% (1,004,762) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 15.3% (182,048) were for the sale or manufacturing of a drug.
2015: Of the 1,488,707 arrests for drug law violations in 2015, 83.9% (1,249,025) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 16.1% (239,682) were for the sale or manufacturing of a drug.
2014: Of the 1,561,231 arrests for drug law violations in 2014, 83.1% (1,297,384) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 16.9% (263,848) were for the sale or manufacturing of a drug.

Total Annual Arrests in the US by Year and Type of Offense

Total Annual Arrests in the US by Year and Type of Offense
In 2015, law enforcement agencies in the US made 10,797,088 arrests for all offenses, of which 1,488,707 were drug arrests, 505,681 were for violent offenses, and 1,463,213 were for property offenses. A total of 643,121 marijuana arrests were made that year, of which 64,480 were for trafficking or sales, and 574,641 were for simple possession of marijuana.

Total Annual Arrests in the US by Offense Type in 2016 Compared With 1973

In 1973, there were 328,670 arrests reported by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) for drug law violations, out of a total 9,027,700 arrests nationwide for all offenses. Also that year, authorities reported 380,560 arrests for all violent crimes and 1,448,700 arrests for all property offenses.
In 2016, there were 1,572,579 arrests for drug law violations out of a total 10,662,252 arrests nationwide for all offenses. Also in 2016, authorities reported 515,151 arrests for all violent crimes and 1,353,283 arrests for all property offenses.

Perceived Risk and Prevalence of Crack Use and Among Young People in the US

"Crack cocaine use spread rapidly from the early to mid-1980s. Still, among 12th graders, the use of crack remained relatively low during this period (3.9% annual prevalence in 1987). Clearly, crack had quickly attained a reputation as a dangerous drug, and by the time of our first measurement of perceived risk in 1987, it was seen as the most dangerous of all drugs. Annual prevalence dropped sharply in the next few years, reaching 1.5% by 1991, where it remained through 1993.

Leadership Conference on Civil Rights on Racially Biased Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice

"Black and Hispanic Americans, and other minority groups as well, are victimized by disproportionate targeting and unfair treatment by police and other front-line law enforcement officials; by racially skewed charging and plea bargaining decisions of prosecutors; by discriminatory sentencing practices; and by the failure of judges, elected officials and other criminal justice policy makers to redress the inequities that become more glaring every day."

Extent of Legally Authorized Wiretapping in US

Extent of Legally Authorized Wiretapping in US: "The number of federal and state wiretaps reported in 2013 increased 5 percent from 2012. A total of 3,576 wiretaps were reported as authorized in 2013, with 1,476 authorized by federal judges and 2,100 authorized by state judges. Compared to the applications approved during 2012, the number approved by federal judges increased 9 percent in 2013, and the number approved by state judges rose 3 percent. One state wiretap application was denied in 2013.

Racial Bias and Police Use of Force

Racial Bias and Police Use of Force: "The differences found among gender, race, and age groups who experienced force in 2005 were consistent with the 2002 PPCS [Police-Public Contact Survey]. Among the persons who had police contact in 2005, females (1.0%) were less likely than males (2.2%) to have had contact with police that resulted in force (table 9). Males accounted for a larger percentage (72.4%) of contacts involving force compared to their percentage of all contacts (53.6%) (table 10).

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