Ecstasy (MDMA)

Ecstasy (MDMA)

Mortality Risk from MDMA Use

(Mortality Risk from MDMA Use) "Hall and Henry (2006) reviewed the medical scenarios and treatment options for physicians dealing with MDMA-related medical emergencies: ‘Hyperpyrexia and multi-organ failure are now relatively well-known, other serious effects have become apparent more recently. Patients with acute MDMA toxicity may present to doctors working in Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Emergency Medicine. A broad knowledge of these pathologies and their treatment is necessary for those working in an acute medicine speciality’.

MDMA Mortality Risk

(MDMA Mortality Risk) "Schifano et al. (2010) analysed the government data on recreational stimulant deaths in the UK between 1997 and 2007. Over this period, there were 832 deaths related to amphetamine or methamphetamine and 605 deaths related to Ecstasy/MDMA. Many were related to multiple-drug ingestion or ‘polydrug’ use. However, in the analysis of ‘mono-intoxication’ fatalities, Schifano et al. (2010) found that deaths following Ecstasy use were significantly more represented than deaths following amphetamine/methamphetamine use (p < 0.007)."

Psilocybin and Addiction

(Psilocybin and Addiction) "The results of the present study have implications for understanding the abuse of hallucinogens. Although psilocybin is regulated by the federal government under the most restrictive category (Schedule I) of the Controlled Substances Act, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2001, 2005) does not consider psilocybin and the other classical hallucinogens to be drugs of 'addiction' because they do not produce compulsive drug-seeking behavior as do classic addicting drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, heroin, and alcohol.

MDMA's Effects on Cognitive Performance

(MDMA's Effects on Cognitive Performance) Studies have indicated that individuals who have used MDMA may have decreased performance in memory tests compared to nonusers. These studies are presently controversial because they involved people who used a variety of other drugs. Furthermore, it is difficult to rule out possible pre-existing differences between research subjects and controls.

MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Harm Reduction, and Dosage Information

(MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Harm Reduction, and Dosage Information) "Apart from warnings issued against dangerous and unexpected pills, dosage makes a difference. In terms of neurotoxicity, several scientific studies pointed out that, among other factors, the probability for possible neurotoxic damage in the serotonergic system grows with the amount of MDMA being consumed.

MDMA (Ecstasy) and Harm Reduction

(MDMA (Ecstasy) and Harm Reduction) "In the context of new synthetic drugs there are some well-established approaches to reduce harm such as handing out condoms for free or giving out drinking water to reduce or stabilise body temperature and to avoid heatstroke. In addition, there are possible harms in the party scene that can be countered by pill-testing projects only. All pill-testing projects inform consumers about very dangerous and unexpected pills on site, through magazines and posters or through the Internet."

MDMA Therapy Benefits

(MDMA Therapy Benefits) "It is notable that no subjects reported any harm from study participation and all of them reported some degree of benefit. Consistent with the investigators‘ clinical observations in the original study, the responses we obtained on the questionnaire indicated that participants often experienced benefits beyond decreased PTSD symptoms.

MDMA Therapy and Substance Abuse

(MDMA Therapy and Substance Abuse) "The data we obtained about illicit drug use from the LTFU [Long Term Follow Up] Questionnaire supports the hypothesis that MDMA can be administered in a clinical setting with minimal risk that the subjects will subsequently seek out and self-administer 'street ecstasy,' or become dependent on the drug.

Neurocognitive Effects from Long-Term MDMA Use

(Neurocognitive Effects from Long-Term MDMA Use) "Using this rigorous approach, we found few consistent differences between ecstasy users and non-users on wide-ranging measures of verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal fluency, attention, processing speed, manipulative dexterity and executive cortical functions. Ecstasy users exhibited lower vocabulary scores than non-users, but this finding probably indicates differences in pre-morbid ability rather than neurotoxicity of ecstasy, as vocabulary is generally preserved even after neurological insults [26,45,46].