United Kingdom

1. Lifetime Prevalence of Illegal Drug Use in England and Wales Among People Aged 16 to 59

"According to the 2014/15 CSEW, 36.5 per cent of young adults aged 16 to 24 had used an illicit drug at some point in their lives, while 19.4 per cent had done so in the last year. By contrast, among the wider age group of adults aged 16 to 59, a similar proportion (34.7%) had used an illicit drug in their lifetime, compared with only 8.6 per cent who had used an illicit drug in the last year. These comparisons provide evidence that drug use tends to begin relatively early in life, and that those who have used a drug at some point in their lives may not have done so recently.
"The following key findings summarise the trend data on lifetime drug use among 16 to 59 year olds:
"• Around one third (34.7%) of adults aged 16 to 59 said they had taken an illicit drug in their lifetime, which equates to around 11.3 million people. This is a similar level to recent years (for example, 35.7% in 2013/14) but an increase from 30.4% in the 1996 survey. This is likely to be an effect of the ageing population, as last-year drug use has fallen compared with the 1996 survey, from 11.1 per cent to 8.6 per cent (Tables 1.01, 1.02 and 1.04).
"• 15.5 per cent (5.1 million) adults aged 16 to 59 had taken a Class A drug in their lifetime, a statistically significant increase from 9.6 per cent in the 1996 survey. This is in line with a simultaneous increase in the use of Class A drugs in the last year, from 2.7 per cent in the 1996 survey to 3.2 per cent in the 2014/15 survey.
"• For all adults aged 16 to 59, the drug most commonly reported as ever used was cannabis, with around three in ten (29.2%) adults reporting using this drug at some point during their lifetime. Furthermore, around one in ten adults aged 16 to 59 said that they had used amphetamines (10.3%), powder cocaine (9.7%), ecstasy (9.2%) or amyl nitrite (8.5%) in their lifetime."

"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, July 2015), p. 6.
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2. Prevalence and Geographical Distribution of Use, Northern Ireland

"• In 2010/11 use of any illegal drug was highest in the BHSCT [Belfast Health and Social Care Trust]. Adults (15-64 yrs) in the BHSCT reported lifetime (41%), recent (11%) and current (6%) use of an illegal drug.
"• The highest last year prevalence rate for any illegal drugs (BHSCT – 11%) was more than double that of the lowest rate (SHSCT [Southern HSCT] and NHSCT [Northern HSCT] – both 5%) among all adults.
"• Prevalence rates tended to be higher across all time periods in the BHSCT area than in other HSCTs."

National Advisory Committee on Drugs (NACD) & Public Health Information and Research Branch (PHIRB). Drug use in Ireland and Northern Ireland 2010/11 Drug Prevalence Survey: Regional Drug Task Force (Ireland) and Health and Social Care Trust (Northern Ireland) Results. Bulletin 2 (2012). p. 1.
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3. Prevalence of Last-Year Illegal Drug Use in England and Wales Among People Aged 15 to 59

"The 2014/15 CSEW shows that around 1 in 12 (8.6%) adults aged 16 to 59 had taken an illicit drug in the last year, which equated to around 2.8 million people. This proportion is similar to the 2013/14 survey (8.8%), and to the 2011/12 survey (9.0%). This relative stability of the trend on either side of the 2012/13 survey figures suggests that the low point observed in the 2012/13 survey (8.1%) may be an outlier, likely to have occurred due to random sampling variability. The trend since the 2009/10 survey has fluctuated between eight and nine per cent, but has remained relatively flat, so levels of drug use are generally stable.
"This follows a period of gradually decreasing proportions from a peak in 2003/04 (12.2%). Prior to 2003/04, the proportion remained broadly flat at around 12 per cent.
"According to the 2014/15 CSEW, 3.2 per cent of adults aged 16 to 59 had taken a Class A drug in the last year, equivalent to just over one million people. The long-term trend in Class A drug use has been broadly stable over the last few years, although there has been some fluctuation. Since 2009/10, the only statistically significant changes were the fall in 2012/13 and the subsequent rise in 2013/14, showing a return to the previous level. However, the current level of last year Class A drug use is significantly higher than in 1996, when 2.7 per cent of adults used Class A drugs. This change is largely accounted for by a significant increase in cocaine use (from 0.6% to 2.4%), offset by a significant fall in the use of hallucinogens (from 1.3% to 0.7%). For further detailed figures, see Tables 1.02 and 1.04."

"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, July 2015), p. 2.
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4. Prevalence of Last-Year Cannabis Use in England and Wales Among People Aged 16 to 59

"As in previous years, cannabis was the most commonly used drug in the last year, with 6.7 per cent of adults aged 16 to 59 using it in the last year, similar to the 2013/14 survey (6.6%; Figure 1.2). Over the longer-term, between the 1998 and 2003/04 surveys, the last year use of cannabis was stable, at around 10 per cent of adults, before falling to 6.5 per cent in 2009/10. The trend since the 2009/10 survey has been relatively flat, at between six and seven per cent (Table 1.02).
"Among younger adults aged 16 to 24, cannabis was also the most commonly used drug, with 16.3 per cent having used it in the last year. This was not statistically significantly different from the level in 2013/14 (15.1%), but was a significant fall compared with the 1996 survey (25.8%).
"Although the trend in the use of cannabis among 16 to 24 year olds appears to have shown a steady increase compared with the 2012/13 survey, it is too early to conclude that this is an emerging pattern at this stage. The estimates from the 2012/13 survey appear to be out of line with recent results, and a comparison of the latest estimate to previous years may indicate that the trend, which has been falling since the peak in 1998, has gradually stabilised (Table 1.06)."

"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, July 2015), p. 3.
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5. Prevalence of Last-Year Powder Cocaine Use in England and Wales Among People Aged 16 to 59

"As in recent years, the next most commonly used drug in the last year by adults aged 16 to 59 was powder cocaine (2.3% in the 2014/15 survey). By contrast, powder cocaine is the third most commonly used drug among young adults aged 16 to 24 (4.8%), after ecstasy (see below). Compared with the previous year, both proportions have remained similar (2.4% among 16 to 59 year olds and 4.2% among 16 to 24 year olds in the 2013/14 survey).
"Powder cocaine use among 16 to 59 year olds rose sharply between the 1996 and 2000 surveys (0.6% to 2.0%), driven by an even sharper increase among the 16 to 24 age group (1.3% to 5.2%). These sharp increases were followed by slower increases to a peak in the trends for both age groups in the 2008/09 survey: 3.0 per cent among 16 to 59 year olds and 6.5 per cent among 16 to 24 year olds. Although the latest figures from the 2014/15 survey represent increases for both age groups compared with the 1996 survey, both are significantly lower compared with the 2008/09 figures.
"While the estimates from the 2014/15 survey for both age groups are significantly higher than the 2012/13 survey, the estimates from 2012/13 look to be out of line with recent results. The estimates from the 2014/15 survey are not statistically significantly different from those seen in the 2013/14 and 2011/12 surveys, which suggests that the fall in cocaine usage since 2008/9 may be levelling out.

"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, July 2015), p. 3.
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6. Prevalence of Use of "Club Drugs" and Other Drugs in England and Wales Among People Aged 15 to 19

"As shown in Figure 1.4, ecstasy use in the last year by adults aged 16 to 59 has fallen from 1.7% in 1996 to 1.3% in 2012/13, although use remains similar to 2011/12 (1.4%).
"In 2012/13, ecstasy use among young adults fell to the lowest proportion (2.9%) since measurement began in 1996 (when the proportion was 6.6%), as shown in Figure 1.4. Last year ecstasy use for 16 to 24 year olds peaked in 2001/2 (6.8%) and has since fallen.
"For adults aged 16 to 59, decreases in the last year use of the following ‘other’ drugs were statistically significant between 2011/12 and 2012/13:
"• mephedrone (1.1% to 0.5% in 2012/13);
"• ketamine (0.6% to 0.4% in 2012/13);
"• magic mushrooms (0.5% to 0.3% in 2012/13);
"• methadone (0.2% to 0.1% in 2012/13).
"For young adults aged 16 to 24, decreases in the last year use of the following ‘other’ drugs were statistically significant from 2011/12 to 2012/13:
"• mephedrone (3.3% to 1.6% in 2012/13);
"• ketamine (1.8% to 0.8% in 2012/13);
"• magic mushrooms (1.2% to 0.6% in 2012/13);
"• methadone (0.4% to 0.0% in 2012/13).
"For both age groups the proportion of adults using amyl nitrite in the last year was the lowest since measurement began in 1996:
"• 0.8% of adults aged 16 to 59 had used amyl nitrite in the last year, compared with 1.3% in 1996;
"• 1.2% of young adults (aged 16 to 24) had used amyl nitrite in the last year, compared with 4.6% in 1996.
"The proportion of adults using heroin stayed low, with 0.1% of adults aged 16 to 59 and 0.0% of young adults (aged 16 to 24) having used heroin in the last year.
"There were no statistically significant increases between 2011/12 and 2012/13 for last year drug use for any type of drugs for adults aged 16 to 59 and young adults aged 16 to 24.
"Questions on khat were not asked in the 2012/13 survey, however the 2011/12 survey showed that the proportion of adults using khat in the last year was 0.2%, the same level as in 2010/11."

"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2012/13 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, Government of the UK, July 2013), pp. 9-11.
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7. Estimated Prevalence of Last-Year Drug Use Among Young Adults in England and Wales

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"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, July 2015), p. 7.
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"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2012/13 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, Government of the UK, July 2013), p. 13.
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8. Prevalence Among Youth, by Gender, Scotland

"Twenty-one per cent of 15 year olds and 5% of 13 year olds reported that they had ever used drugs. Nineteen per cent of 15 year olds and 4% of 13 year olds reported they had used drugs in the last year and 11% of 15 year olds and 3% of 13 year olds reported that they had used drugs in the last month.
"Boys were slightly more likely than girls to report that they had ever taken drugs: 24% of 15 year old boys compared with 18% of 15 year old girls and 6% of 13 year old boys compared with 5% of 13 year old girls.
"While between 2004 and 2006 there was a substantial decrease in the prevalence of drug use in the last month, between 2006 and 2008 prevalence decreased only among 13 year old boys. Since 2008, prevalence has decreased further only among girls: among 15 year old girls, the decrease has been from 11% in 2008 to 9% in 2010 and among 13 year old girls the decrease has been from 3% in 2008 to 2% in 2010."

Black, Carolyn, et al., "Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS) National Report" (Edinburgh, Scotland: Information Services Division, NHS National Services Scotland, and Ipsos MORI, Nov. 29, 2011), p. 5.
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9. Prevalence of Past-Month Use of Various Drugs in England and Wales, 2014-2015

"• Around 4.7 per cent of adults aged 16 to 59 said they had taken an illicit drug in the last month. This equates to around 1.5 million people and is a significantly lower percentage than those observed a decade ago in the 2004/05 survey and when CSEW measurements began in 1996 (both 6.7%) (Tables 1.03 and 1.04).
"• The proportion of young adults aged 16 to 24 followed a similar pattern, although the proportion was 10.2 per cent, around double that of the wider age group. This equates to around 642,000 people aged 16 to 24 having taken a drug in the last month prior to interview. The 2014/15 survey proportion represents a significant fall compared with 16.4 per cent in the 2004/05 survey and 19.2 per cent in the 1996 survey (Tables 1.07 and 1.08).
"• 1.4 per cent of adults aged 16 to 59 and 3.2 per cent of young adults aged 16 to 24 had taken a Class A drug in the last month. These proportions are similar to those last observed in the 2011/12 survey and have not changed significantly compared with the 1996 survey.
"• Among adults aged 16 to 59, the drugs most commonly taken in the last month were cannabis (3.7%), powder cocaine (0.9%) and ecstasy (0.7%). Among adults aged 16 to 24, the drugs most commonly taken in the last month were cannabis (8.4%), ecstasy (2.1%) and powder cocaine (1.7%)."

"Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, July 2015), p. 6.
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10. Prevalence Among Students in England 2011

"There has been a decline in drug use by 11 to 15 year old pupils since 2001. In 2011, 17% of pupils had ever taken drugs, compared with 29% in 2001. There were similar falls in the proportions of pupils who reported taking drugs in the last year and the last month. The decline in the prevalence of drug use parallels the fall in the proportions of pupils who have ever been offered drugs, from 42% in 2001 to 29% in 2011.
"In 2011, 12% of pupils reported taking drugs in the last year; 6% said they had taken drugs in the last month. The prevalence of drug use increases with age; in 2011, the proportions of pupils who had taken drugs in the last year increased from 3% of 11 year olds to 23% of 15 year olds. There was little difference between the proportions of boys and girls who had taken drugs in the last year. Pupils of Black ethnicity were more likely to have taken drugs than White pupils.
"As in previous years, pupils were most likely to have taken cannabis (7.6% in the last year, down from 13.4% in 2001) or to have sniffed glue, gas or other volatile substances (3.5% in 2011). Other drugs asked about had been taken in the last year by 1% of pupils or less.
"A minority of pupils who take drugs did so frequently. Just over a third (35%) of those who took drugs in the last year said that they usually took them once a month or more (equivalent to 3% of all 11 to 15 year olds). 29% of those who took drugs in the last year had only ever taken drugs once."

Fuller, Elizabeth (Ed.), "Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 2011" (London, England: NHS Health and Social Care Information Centre, July 26, 2012), p. 9.
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11. Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use Among Youth, England

"The survey sample represents an estimated population of around 3.0 million young people aged between 11 and 15 in England. Findings from this survey indicate that in England in 2011 around 140,000 young people aged between 11 and 15 were regular smokers, around 360,000 drank alcohol in the last week, and around 180,000 had taken drugs (including glue, gas and other volatile substances) in the last month.
"Pupils aged 11 to 15 were more likely to have drunk alcohol at least once (45%) than to have tried smoking (25%) or taking drugs (17%). The proportion of pupils who had done at least one of these increased with age from 20% of 11 year olds to 80% of 15 year olds.
"Less than half of pupils who had tried smoking, drinking or drug use had done so recently. 12% of 11 to 15 year olds had drunk alcohol in the last week, 8% had smoked in the last week and 6% had taken drugs in the last month.
"Several factors were strongly associated with smoking, drinking and drug use. If a pupil had done one of these, he or she had an increased likelihood of having done one or both of the others. All three became increasingly prevalent with age. Other characteristics, such as sex and ethnicity, were not consistent predictors of whether pupils were more likely to smoke, drink or take drugs."

Fuller, Elizabeth (Ed.), "Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 2011" (London, England: NHS Health and Social Care Information Centre, July 26, 2012), p. 11.
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12. Little Evidence of Causal Gateway Effect for Soft Drugs

"After applying these methods, there is very little remaining evidence of any causal gateway effect. For example, even if soft/medium drugs (cannabis, amphetamines, LSD, magic mushrooms, amyl nitrite) could somehow be abolished completely, the true causal link with hard drugs (crack, heroin, methadone) is found to be very small. For the sort of reduction in soft drug use that might be achievable in practice, the predicted causal effect on the demand for hard drugs would be negligible. Although there is stronger evidence of a gateway between soft drugs and ecstasy/cocaine, it remains small for practical purposes. My interpretation of the results of this study is that true gateway effects are probably very small and that the association between soft and hard drugs found in survey data is largely the result of our inability to observe all the personal characteristics underlying individual drug use. From this viewpoint, the decision to reclassify cannabis seems unlikely to have damaging future consequences."

Pudney, Stephen, "Home Office Research Study 253: The road to ruin? Sequences of initiation into drug use and offending by young people in Britain" (London, England: Home Office Research, Development, and Statistics Directorate, December 2002), p. vi.
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13. Estimated Prevalence of Crack Use in England

"Among the general population, use of powder cocaine is far more common than use of crack cocaine. Although crack cocaine use is relatively rare, it is associated with very problematic use and drug-related crime, predominantly among those also using opioids. Due to the often chaotic nature of users’ lives, it is likely that household surveys underestimate crack use. The last indirect estimate of problematic crack use in England puts the rate at 4.76 per 1000 population aged 15 to 64 years (Hay, Rael dos Santos, & Worsley, 2014). Cocaine (powder) is also the most seized stimulant in the UK, both in terms of number and quantity of seizures (see ST13). Having been 51% in 2003, the purity of domestic resale powder cocaine fell to 20% in 2009. However, it has risen since then and was 36% in 2014."

UK Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation: Focal Point Annual Report 2015 (2016), Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 52.
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14. Drug Offenses in the UK by Offense Type and Country


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Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, Table 9.1, p. 154.
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15. Drug Offenses in the UK by Offense Type and Country, 2004-2005 to 2012-2013

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Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, Table 9.1, p. 154.
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16. Trends in Recorded Drug Crime in the UK

"The number of recorded drug crimes in the UK decreased by one per cent in 2011/12 (Table 9.1). There were variations across the UK with increases in Northern Ireland (8%) and Scotland (2%) and a decrease in England and Wales (-2%). In Scotland the increase was for possession offences with a decrease in trafficking offences while in Northern Ireland there were increases for both possession and trafficking offences. In England and Wales the decrease in possession offences was mainly for drugs other than cannabis while in Northern Ireland the increase in possession offences was mainly accounted for by an increase in cannabis offences. In England and Wales the number of possession offences for both cannabis and other drugs peaked in 2008/09. The decrease in recorded drug offences in England and Wales since 2008/09 coincides with the end of the national target regime for police (Chaplin et al. 2011). This demonstrates the impact of police priorities on recorded drug offences."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 150.
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17. Convictions for Drug Offences in the UK

"There were 152,451 drug offences where the person was found guilty at court or cautioned in the United Kingdom during 2010 (Table 9.3; ST11). This represents a four per cent increase on the previous year (n=147,013) and resumes the upward trend that was evident between 2005 and 2008. Convictions for almost all drugs apart from cannabis decreased or remained stable with cocaine powder offences decreasing by 11% and ecstasy offences decreasing by 50%. The number of heroin offences remained stable.
"Cannabis offences continued to increase by 13% since the previous year with cannabis offences now accounting for half of all drug cautions and court convictions and wholly responsible for the increase in total drug offences. Cannabis trafficking offences increased by 41% from 11,054 in 2009 to 15,534 in 2010. This is likely to be due to the continued increase in the number of cannabis farm discoveries and related production offences (ACPO 2012; see section 9.2.1 and 10.3.3)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 153.
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18. Trends in Convictions for Cannabis Offenses in England and Wales

"While the number of convictions (at court or cautions) for cannabis possession in 2010 (n=59,750) is 26% lower than in 2003 (n=80,656) before the introduction of the formal warning for cannabis271 in England and Wales, the number has increased by 24% since 2007 (n=48,299) (ST11). This suggests that more punitive sanctions are being used to deal with cannabis possession offences. Data from England and Wales show that there was a seven per cent increase in cannabis possession offences dealt with by a caution or in court between 2009 and 2010 with a corresponding seven per cent decrease in the use of non-criminal sanctions such as the formal warning for cannabis and the penalty notice for disorder272 (Figure 9.1). Although the total number of cannabis possession offences dealt with by law enforcement (either through criminal or administrative measures) decreased between 2009 and 2010 (from 154,336 to 150,765), the number remains almost twice as high as before the introduction of the formal warning for cannabis (n=77,500). This is despite a decrease in reported cannabis use over the period (see section 2.2 and Trends Analysis section)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 153.
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19. Stop and Searches for Drugs in England and Wales

"In 2010/11 there were almost 600,000 stop and searches for drugs carried out by the police in England and Wales accounting for almost half of all police stop and searches for any reason (Home Office 2012e). This is a five per cent increase on the previous year and continues a trend of increased use of this power. Almost half of the drug searches recorded were carried out in London. Overall, a stop and search for drugs resulted in an arrest in seven per cent of cases across England and Wales with the British Transport Police, South-East England, London, and East Midlands below the national average. This compares to a 12% arrest rate for searches for non-drug reasons. The number of arrests as a result of drugs stop and search was 41,961."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 152.
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20. Prison Inmates by Offense

"On June 30th 2010 there were 85,002 people in prison custody in England and Wales, 73,305 of whom were adults.341 Of those adult prisoners in custody, 15% were on remand and 85% were sentenced. The most common offence was violence against the person (28%) followed by drug offences (16%), sexual offences (14%) and robbery (11%). Of all prisoners in custody, five per cent were female and 14% were foreign nationals (including those held in Immigration Removal Centres). Seven per cent of adult sentenced prisoners were sentenced for six months or less.
"In Scotland during 2010/11 the average daily number of prisoners was 7,853, 19% of whom were on remand. Of those sentenced, 36% were convicted of non-sexual crimes of violence with 14% convicted of drug offences."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom drug situation: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) 2011" (Lisbon, Portugal: EMCDDA, Nov. 2012), p. 163.
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21. Prison Sentences 1994 and 2005

"The use of custodial sentences for drug offenders increased substantially between 1994 and 2005. The annual number of people imprisoned rose by 111% and the average length of their sentences increased by 29%. Taking into account the rise in the average sentence length (37 months for drug dealing in 2004), the courts handed out nearly three times as much prison time in 2004 as they did 10 years earlier."

Reuter, Peter and Stevens, Alex, "An Analysis of UK Drug Policy: A Monograph Prepared for the UK Drug Policy Commission," UK Drug Policy Commission (London, United Kingdom: April 2007), p. 10.
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22. Drug Seizures, England and Wales

"• There were 216,296 drug seizures by the police and the UK Border Agency (UKBA) in England and Wales in 2011/12, a two per cent increase on 2010/11.
"• Class A seizures decreased by five per cent between 2010/11 and 2011/12, to 33,481. Class B seizures rose by three per cent to 181,011, while class C seizures fell by eight per cent to 6,915.
"• Cocaine was again the most commonly seized class A drug, though there was a one per cent decrease in the number of seizures between 2010/11 and 2011/12, to 17,449. The second highest seized class A drug was heroin with 9,150 seizures, a 15 per cent decrease from 2010/11 and its fourth consecutive fall.
"• The majority of class B seizures were for cannabis. The 173,153 seizures in 2011/12 compared to 167,410 during the previous year, a three per cent increase. This included increases in the number of herbal cannabis and cannabis plants seizures (up 6% and 14% respectively), and a decrease in cannabis resin seizures (down 23%).
"• The most commonly seized class C drug in 2011/12 was benzodiazepine with 2,689 seizures, which was eight per cent higher than the previous year?s 2,489 seizures."

Coleman, Kathryn, "Home Office Statistical Bulletin: Seizures of drugs in England and Wales, 2011/12, Second Edition" (London, England: Home Office Statistics Unit, Government of the UK, Nov. 15, 2012), HOSB 12/12, p. 7.
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23. Commercial Cannabis Cultivation Offenses in the UK, Trends and Demographic Data

"The 2010 National Profile reported 6,866 offences of commercial cultivation in 2009/10, increasing by 15 per cent over the following two years.3 Based on those forces that provided three years’ data for this profile, there was a 3.7 per cent reduction between 2011/12 and 2012/13 and a 5.6 per cent reduction between 2012/13 and 2013/14. These figures equate to an annual average of five offences recorded per 100,000 population.
"Seasonal trends in reporting were not identified. This is understandable as cannabis production is not driven by external environmental factors.
Of those forces reporting increased offences, some have dedicated dismantling teams and forensic strategies in place to identify farms and recover plants. These specialist teams provide detailed local profiles; identify intelligence links and offenders; and ascertain the source of the equipment used. This is likely to have prompted their increased recording.
"During the three year period, 6,010 offenders were identified as involved in the commercial cultivation of cannabis.4 Offenders continue to be predominantly male5, accounting for 88.5 per cent of all offenders, and largely white North European (70 per cent of all offenders) 6 most frequently aged between 25 and 34. There has been a decline in the proportion of South East Asian offenders over the last three years, now representing approximately 12 per cent of all offenders recorded7.

National Police Chiefs' Council, "UK National Problem Profile: Commercial Cultivation of Cannabis 2012" (London, England: 2015), p. 6.
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24. Price and Purity of Heroin in the UK, 2011

"Data show that there was a large decrease in the average purity of heroin in 2011 (Table 10.8). This follows reports of a reduction in the availability of heroin from late 2010 both within the international supply chain and within the UK. Indeed, the number of seizures the purity data in Table 10.8 is based on decreased by almost one-third in 2011 and seizures data also show a decrease in the quantity of heroin seized in 2010/11 (see section 10.3.2). Despite reports of a reduction in the supply of heroin and an increase in the wholesale price, the street-level price of heroin, as reported by law enforcement agencies, decreased from £45 per gram to £40 per gram. However, when adjusting for purity, the price of heroin increased significantly from £42.16 to £74.32 (Table 10.9). This suggests that dealers are more likely to adulterate their product in times of shortages than increase the price as indicated in research studies (Matrix Knowledge Group 2007). Street-level heroin is commonly adulterated with both caffeine and paracetamol."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 183.
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25. Price and Purity of Cocaine in the UK, 2011

"The mean purity of cocaine powder increased for the second year in a row after decreasing since 2005 (Table 10.8). The purity remains far below the levels seen in 2005 and almost half the level of 2003. Cocaine powder is commonly adulterated with benzocaine and levamisole.
"Given that the price of cocaine powder remained stable and purity increased slightly, there was a decrease in the purity-adjusted price of cocaine powder from £86.05 to £78.17 following a peak in 2009 (Table 10.10). Nevertheless, the price remains 42% higher than in 2003."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 184.
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26. Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users in UK

Problem Drug Use and Its Correlates

"Combining the 2009/10 estimates for England, Scotland, Wales (Hay et al. 2011; ISD Scotland 2011; Welsh Government 2011a) and the most recent estimate for Northern Ireland for 2004 (Centre for Drug Misuse Research 2006) it is possible to derive an estimate for the United Kingdom of 383,534 problem drug users, a rate of 9.38 per 1,000 population aged 15 to 64 (Table 4.2)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 85.
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27. Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users in the UK, 2011

"Latest national and regional estimates for England are for 2009/10 for opiate and/or crack cocaine use, with separate estimates available for opiate use, crack cocaine use, and injecting drug use. In Scotland, the latest national and regional estimates for problematic opiate and/or benzodiazepine use are also for 2009/10 and were published in 2011. Drug injecting estimates for Scotland are available for 2006. In Wales, local and national estimates for 2009/10 for long duration or regular use of heroin, other opioids, crack cocaine and/or cocaine powder were published in 2011. Estimates for Northern Ireland for 2004 were published in 2006 and cover problem opiate and/or problem cocaine powder use.
"Based on these, it is estimated that there are a total of 383,534 problem drug users in the United Kingdom, and 133,112 people who inject drugs (PWID) (primarily opiates or crack cocaine)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 84.
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28. Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users (PDUs) in England

"The most recent estimates of problem drug use in England were published in 2011 (Hay et al. 2011; see UK Focal Point Report 2011) showing that there were an estimated 306,150118 opiate and/or crack cocaine users in 2009/10. New national and local estimates of the prevalence of opiate and/or crack cocaine use (OCU) are being calculated for 2010/11 with separate estimates for opiate use, crack cocaine use and injecting drug use. It is anticipated that the results will be available in 2013."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 84.
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29. Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users (PDUs) in Wales

"National PDU estimates for Wales for the period 2009/10 were published by the Welsh Government in October 2011 (Welsh Government 2011a; see UK Focal Point Report 2011). Regional differences were noted in the report across Health Board areas. The rate (per 1,000 population) ranged from 3.5 (95% CI 2.4 to 9.6) in the rural Powys area to 14.3 (95% CI 11.0 to 19.0) in the Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University (ABMU)123 area."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 85.
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30. Prevalence of HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs, UK

"The overall prevalence of HIV seen amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2011 was similar to that seen in recent years, and remains higher than that found in the late 1990s. The Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring (UAM)163 survey of current and former PWID in England and Wales indicated an overall HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2011 (ST09). In 2011, the prevalence was 1.4% amongst men and 0.95% amongst women, with prevalence increasing with age from 0.89% amongst those aged under 25 years to 1.4% amongst those aged 35 years and over (ST09)
"The prevalence of HIV amongst the PWID taking part in the 2011 UAM Survey across England, Wales and Northern Ireland was 1.2%.164 Between 2001 and 2011, prevalence varied between 0.93% and 1.6% (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b; Figure 6.1).
"In 2011 in England, prevalence was 1.3%165, which is not significantly higher than in 2001 when the prevalence was 1.0%. In Wales in 2011, prevalence was 1.1%166 and in Northern Ireland prevalence was 0.56%167 (HPA 2012b).
"There is also evidence of on-going HIV transmission amongst PWID within the UK. In particular, the HIV prevalence amongst recent initiates to injecting in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (i.e. those who first injected during the preceding three years) has varied over time ranging from 0.36% in 2001 to 1.3% in 2008. The prevalence amongst the recent initiates participating in the UAM Survey in 2011 was 0.47%168 which is similar to the level found in 2001 (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b; Figure 6.1)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 108.
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31. Prevalence of HIV Related To Injection Drug Use in the UK, 2011

"The overall prevalence of HIV seen amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2011 was similar to that seen in recent years, and remains higher than that found in the late 1990s. The Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring (UAM)138 survey of current and former PWID in England and Wales indicated an overall HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2011 (ST09). In 2011, the prevalence was 1.4% amongst men and 0.95% amongst women, with prevalence increasing with age from 0.89% amongst those aged under 25 years to 1.4% amongst those aged 35 years and over (ST09)
"The prevalence of HIV amongst the PWID taking part in the 2011 UAM Survey across England, Wales and Northern Ireland was 1.2%.139 Between 2001 and 2011, prevalence varied between 0.93% and 1.6% (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b; Figure 6.1).
"In 2011 in England, prevalence was 1.3%140, which is not significantly higher than in 2001 when the prevalence was 1.0%. In Wales in 2011, prevalence was 1.1%141 and in Northern Ireland prevalence was 0.56%142 (HPA 2012b).
"There is also evidence of on-going HIV transmission amongst PWID within the UK. In particular, the HIV prevalence amongst recent initiates to injecting in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (i.e. those who first injected during the preceding three years) has varied over time ranging from 0.36% in 2001 to 1.3% in 2008. The prevalence amongst the recent initiates participating in the UAM Survey in 2011 was 0.47%143 which is similar to the level found in 2001 (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b; Figure 6.1)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 95.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/ht...
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32. Hepatitis C Prevalence and Injection Drug Use

"The prevalence of hepatitis C infection amongst PWID remains high overall (HPA et al. 2012). In 2011, 44% of the (current and former) PWID participating in the UAM Survey in England and Wales had antibodies to hepatitis C169, which is similar to the level seen in recent years (ST09). However, this is higher than the level found in 2000 when prevalence was 38% (ST09). The prevalence in 2011 was 46% amongst men and 41% amongst women, and increased with age from 22% amongst those aged under 25 years to 53% amongst those aged 35 years and over (ST09).
"In 2011, the overall prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C amongst the PWID participating in the UAM Survey across England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2011 was 43%. This is lower than the 47% recorded in 2010, however, it is not significantly different from the prevalence of 39% seen in 2001 (HPA 2012b; Figure 6.2). In England in 2011, the hepatitis C prevalence amongst participants in the UAM Survey was 45%, however, there were very marked regional variations ranging from 33% in the West Midlands, East Midlands and North East to 60% in the North West (HPA 2012a). The prevalence in Wales (39%) and Northern Ireland (29%) was lower than in many of the English regions (HPA 2012a).
"The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C amongst recent initiates in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (those injecting for less than three years) is higher than in 2000 (12%) and earlier years. In 2011, amongst those in this group who participated in the UAM Survey from throughout England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the prevalence was 20% and similar to that seen between 2001 and 2010 (Figure 6.2) (HPA 2012b)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), pp. 109-110.
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33. Drug Misuse Deaths, England and Wales

"In 2011 there were 1,605 drug misuse deaths. The number of male deaths decreased by 14 per cent from 1,382 in 2010 to 1,192 in 2011. However over the same period the number of female deaths rose by 3 per cent from 402 to 413 (Table 1).
"Since 1993 there has been an upward trend in the proportion of drug poisoning deaths that were related to drug misuse for both males and females. In males this proportion peaked in 2010 at 73 per cent, but went down to 67 per cent in 2011. In females, this proportion peaked in 2008 at 51 per cent, but has since dropped slightly, and remains stable at around 47 per cent."

"Statistical Bulletin: Deaths Related to Drug Poisoning in England and Wales, 2011" (London, England: Office for National Statistics, Aug 29, 2012), p. 7.
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34. Drug-Related Mortality, by Gender, England and Wales

"The male mortality rate from drug misuse dropped significantly from it’s peak of 55.8 deaths per million population in 2009 to 43.4 deaths per million population in 2011 – the lowest rate since 2003.
"Despite some annual fluctuations, the female mortality rate from drug misuse has tended to increase since 1993. The mortality rate peaked in 2008 at 15.6 deaths per million population, then dropped significantly in 2009, but increased slightly in 2010 and 2011, reaching 14.4 deaths per million population."

"Statistical Bulletin: Deaths Related to Drug Poisoning in England and Wales, 2011" (London, England: Office for National Statistics, Aug 29, 2012), p. 7.
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp1...

35. Opiate-Related Mortality, England and Wales

"Over half (57 per cent) of all deaths related to drug poisoning involved an opiate drug. In 2011, as in previous years, the most commonly mentioned opiates were heroin and/or morphine, which were involved in 596 deaths (see Background note 8). For males, heroin/morphine was involved in more deaths than any other substance.
"However, the mortality rate for males has fallen sharply in the last two years, down from 27.9 deaths per million population in 2009 to 17.1 in 2011. This is a 39 per cent fall and is the lowest rate since 1997. The corresponding rate in females was much lower at 4.5 deaths per million population in 2011, and has not changed significantly since 1997, when the rate was 2.2 deaths per million population."

"Statistical Bulletin: Deaths Related to Drug Poisoning in England and Wales, 2011" (London, England: Office for National Statistics, Aug 29, 2012), pp. 16-17.
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp1...

36. Limitations of Drug-Related Mortality Data

"• In around 11 per cent of drug poisoning deaths only a general description is recorded on the coroner’s death certificate (such as drug overdose or multiple drug toxicity). Deaths where the certificate contains only non-specific information cannot contribute to the counts of deaths involving specific substances.
"• In an additional 34 per cent of all drug poisoning deaths, the death certificate mentions more than one specific drug. Where more than one drug is mentioned, it is not possible to tell which was primarily responsible for the death.
"• Where more than one drug is mentioned on a death certificate the death will be counted in more than one category in Table 3. For example, if both heroin and cannabis are mentioned, the death will be recorded once under heroin and once under cannabis. Therefore the numbers for different substances cannot be added together to give a total number of deaths.
"• Approximately 30 per cent of all drug-related poisoning deaths also contain a mention of alcohol or long-term alcohol abuse (for example, cirrhosis) in addition to a drug."

"Statistical Bulletin: Deaths Related to Drug Poisoning in England and Wales, 2011" (London, England: Office for National Statistics, Aug 29, 2012), p. 12.
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp1...

37. Cannabis Overdose: Toxic Dosage and Mortality Risk

"Tetrahydrocannabinol is a very safe drug. Laboratory animals (rats, mice, dogs, monkeys) can tolerate doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram). This would be equivalent to a 70 kg person swallowing 70 grams of the drug—about 5,000 times more than is required to produce a high. Despite the widespread illicit use of cannabis there are very few if any instances of people dying from an overdose. In Britain, official government statistics listed five deaths from cannabis in the period 1993-1995 but on closer examination these proved to have been deaths due to inhalation of vomit that could not be directly attributed to cannabis (House of Lords Report, 1998). By comparison with other commonly used recreational drugs these statistics are impressive."

Iversen, Leslie L., PhD, FRS, "The Science of Marijuana" (London, England: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 178, citing House of Lords, Select Committee on Science and Technology, "Cannabis — The Scientific and Medical Evidence" (London, England: The Stationery Office, Parliament, 1998).
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38. Adult Clients in Treatment and Outcomes, England

Treatment

"— Of the 197,110 clients aged 18 and over in treatment contact during 2011-12, 185,428 were in treatment for 12 weeks or more or completed treatment free of dependency before 12 weeks (94%)
"— 29,855 (47%) of clients exiting treatment in 2011-12 completed treatment, defined as having overcome their dependency; a further 8,524 (14%) were transferred for further treatment within the community, while 7,123 (11%) were transferred into structured treatment while in custody
"— Of those opiate only clients with a six month review in 2011-12, 51% achieved abstinence from illicit opiates and a further 23% were classified as reliably improved. A further 3% had deteriorated
"— 63% of crack only clients with a six month review in 2011-12 achieved abstinence from crack cocaine and a further 8% were classified as reliably improved. 2% had deteriorated"

National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, "Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) 1 April 2011– 31 March 2012, Vol. 1: The Numbers" (Manchester, England: National Drug Evidence Centre, 4th October 2012), p. 2.
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39. Treatment Clients by Primary Substance, England

"81% of clients were opiates users, of which two thirds reported adjunctive crack cocaine use. The majority of remaining drug users were in treatment for powder cocaine (5%), cannabis (8%) or crack cocaine (3%) problems (excluding those also citing opiates). Among those aged 18 and over, opiates users in treatment had an average (median) age of 36, while adults in treatment for cocaine had a much lower average (median) age of 29 and those in treatment for cannabis use had an average (median) age of 26. Adults in treatment for benzodiazepines had the same median age as opiates users (36)."

National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, "Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) 1 April 2011– 31 March 2012, Vol. 1: The Numbers" (Manchester, England: National Drug Evidence Centre, 4th October 2012), p. 8.
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40. Youth Clients in Treatment by Referral Source, England

"— 20,688 young people accessed specialist substance misuse services in 2011-12. This is a decrease of 1,267 individuals (5.8%) since 2010-11 and a decrease of 2,840 individuals (12.1%) since 2009-10
"— The most common routes into specialist substance misuse services were from youth offending teams (34%) and mainstream education (15%)"

National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, "Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) - Statistics relating to young people - England, 1 April 2011– 31 March 2012" (Manchester, England: National Drug Evidence Centre, 1 November 2012), p. 2.
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41. Characteristics of Youth in Treatment, England

"— The majority of young people accessing specialist services did so with problems for cannabis (64%) or alcohol (29%) as their primary substance
"— 80% of young people accessing specialist services stated they were living with their family or other relatives. 7% stated they had an accommodation status of either living in care or living independently as a looked after child
"— Of those entering services in 2011-12 almost half (49%) were in mainstream education. 20% stated they were not in education or employment.
"— The majority of those entering specialist substance misuse services did so reporting multiple vulnerabilities (76%)"

National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, "Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) - Statistics relating to young people - England, 1 April 2011– 31 March 2012" (Manchester, England: National Drug Evidence Centre, 1 November 2012), p. 2.
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42. Treatment Availability and Use, Northern Ireland

"During 2009/10:
"• A total of 576 individuals were in contact with Substitute Prescribing treatment services, compared to 550 in 2008/09.
"• 89 individuals discontinued from the scheme – the main reasons given were ‘failed to present for Substitute Prescribing’, ‘managed discontinuation of Substitute Prescribing’ and ‘unmanaged discontinuation of Substitute Prescribing’."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 4/2010, "Statistics from the Northern Ireland Substitute Prescribing Database: 31 March 2010," September 2010, p. 1.
http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/sub...

43. Treatment Availability and Demand, Northern Ireland

"In Northern Ireland on 1st March 2012:
"• There were 5916 individuals in treatment for drug and/or alcohol misuse. Of all those in treatment on 1st March 2012:
"— Just over one half (53%) were in treatment for alcohol misuse;
"— Approximately one quarter (26%) were in treatment for drug misuse; and
"— Just over one fifth (22%) were in treatment for both drug and alcohol misuse."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 2/2012, "Census of Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services in Northern Ireland: 1st March 2012" (June 2012), p. 1.
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44. Profile of Patients in Treatment, by Substance Type, Northern Ireland

"Drugs only
"5.1 There were 1514 individuals in treatment for drug misuse. Of these, 1042 (69%) were male and 472 (31%) were female (Table 3). The largest proportion of those in treatment for drug misuse were aged 18 years or over (94%; 1417 individuals), whilst 6% (97 individuals) were aged under 18 years (Figure 3; Table 4).
"Alcohol only
"5.2 There were 3111 individuals in treatment for alcohol misuse. Of these, 2056 (66%) were male and 1055 (34%) were female (Table 3). The majority of those in treatment for alcohol misuse were aged 18 years or over (97%; 3020 individuals), whilst 3% (91 individuals) were aged under 18 years (Figure 3; Table 4).
"Drugs and Alcohol
"5.3 There were 1291 individuals in treatment for both drug and alcohol misuse. Of these, 968 (75%) were male and 323 (25%) were female (Table 3). The majority of individuals in treatment for both drugs and alcohol were aged 18 years or over (84%; 1081 individuals), while 16% (210 individuals) were aged under 18 years (Figure 3; Table 4)."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 2/2012, "Census of Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services in Northern Ireland: 1st March 2012" (June 2012), p. 3.
http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/cen...

45. Substitution Treatment, Northern Ireland

"On 31 March 2010:
"• 466 individuals were receiving substitute medication. This is compared to 429 individuals on 31 March 2009, an increase of 9%.
"• 457 of those individuals had been stabilised. Just over half (52%) of clients were stabilised on methadone, and a further 47% were stabilised on buprenorphine.
"• 423 of those individuals had been stabilised and had been subject to at least one review.
"• At review stage, 22% reported heroin as their main problem drug, compared to 75% when first assessed for substitute prescribing treatment.
"• Of those individuals who had injected, 17% reported injecting in the four weeks prior to review, compared to 55% who had injected in the four weeks prior to their first assessment."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 4/2010, "Statistics from the Northern Ireland Substitute Prescribing Database: 31 March 2010," September 2010, p. 1.
http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/sub...

46. Treatment Effectiveness

Effectiveness

"The overriding finding from this study is that treatment is associated with a reduction in harmful behaviours that are associated with problem drug use. The majority of treatment seekers received care-coordinated treatment, expressed satisfaction with their care, were retained in treatment beyond three months, reported significant and substantial reductions in drug use and offending, and improvements in mental well-being and social functioning."

Andrew Jones, et al., "Research Report 24: The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): Final Outcomes Report" (London, England: UK Government, Home Office Ministry, Research, Development & Statistics Directorate, December 2009), p. 14.
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47. Treatment Effectiveness at Reducing Levels of Drug Use

Impact of Treatment on Drug Use

"During the course of treatment, many treatment seekers stopped using the drugs that they reported using at entry to the study. Lower rates of drug use were recorded at each follow-up. Furthermore, those that continued to use tended to use less. Most of the changes observed occurred by first follow-up. For most forms of drug use, no particular treatment modality was more associated with cessation than any other and the route into treatment (CJS or non-CJS) did not influence drug-use outcomes.
"The proportion using each drug reduced significantly between baseline and follow-up (Figure 5). Most of this change occurred by first follow-up; indeed use of some drug types increased marginally, and levels of abstinence from all drugs decreased between first and second follow-up.
"The proportion of treatment seekers using heroin, crack, cocaine, amphetamine or benzodiazepines decreased between baseline and follow-up by around 50 per cent; the proportion using non-prescribed methadone or other opiates such as morphine, decreased by considerably more; but the proportion using cannabis or alcohol decreased by considerably less.The proportion who reported each drug to be causing problems fell substantially for all drug types, suggesting that continued use was often, in the client’s view, non-problematic."

Andrew Jones, et al., "Research Report 24: The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): Final Outcomes Report" (London, England: UK Government, Home Office Ministry, Research, Development & Statistics Directorate, December 2009), p. 10.
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48. Opioid Substitution Treatment and Risk of New HIV Infection Among IDUs

"There is evidence from published and unpublished observational studies that opiate substitution treatment is associated with an average 54% reduction in the risk of new HIV infection among people who inject drugs. There is weak evidence to suggest that greater benefit might be associated with longer measured duration of exposure to opiate substitution treatment. All of the eligible studies examined the impact of methadone maintenance treatment, indicating that there are few data regarding the impact of buprenorphine or other forms of non-methadone opiate substitution treatment in relation to HIV transmission. We found no evidence that methadone detoxification is associated with a reduction in the risk of HIV transmission."

MacArthur, Georgie J., et al., "Opiate substitution treatment and HIV transmission in people who inject drugs: systematic review and meta-analysis," BMJ 2012; 345 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.... (Published 4 October 2012).
http://www.bmj.com/content/345...

49. Treatment Effectiveness at Reducing Levels of Offending

Recidivism and Criminal Behavior

"Overall, lower levels of acquisitive offending and high-cost offending were recorded at follow-up. Among those who continued to offend, improvements in offending behaviour at follow-up, in terms of a decrease in its volume and/ or the costs associated with it, were observed. Crack users, injecting users, users with high SDS [Severity of Dependence Scores] scores, and those with previous treatment experience were more likely to offend than others at any point. However, neither referral source nor the type of treatment modalities received, were significantly associated with the level of acquisitive offending at any point (within the adjusted model)."

Andrew Jones, et al., "Research Report 24: The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): Final Outcomes Report" (London, England: UK Government, Home Office Ministry, Research, Development & Statistics Directorate, December 2009), p. 10.
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50. Heroin-Assisted Treatment

"Uniquely in the United Kingdom, methadone ampoules can also be prescribed. Historically, they have at times been a substantial part of opiate substitution treatment in the United Kingdom (e.g. around 30% in the 1970s and approximately 10% in the early 1990s), but they now account for approximately 2% of all methadone prescriptions in England and Wales (Strang et al., 2007). Injectable heroin can also be prescribed in the United Kingdom to heroin addicts as an opiate treatment and has been a treatment option for over 80 years, and this has historically been important. However, over the last 30 years, this practice has become progressively rarer and now comprises less than 1% of all opiate substitution treatment in the United Kingdom. The established method of heroin prescription in the United Kingdom has been as a ‘take-away’ supply, which is then injected in an unsupervised context. In practice, few doctors have prescribed it and few patients have received it (Metrebian et al., 2002)."

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "EMCDDA INSIGHTS No. 11: New heroin-assisted treatment: Recent evidence and current practices of supervised injectable heroin treatment in Europe and beyond" (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, April 2012), doi: 10.2810/50141, pp. 134-135.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/at...

51. Substance Use Prevention Programs In The UK

Prevention & Education

"Policies have been embedded in, or complemented by, a much wider framework of social action to create the capacity of both individuals and communities to resist drugs, including policies for children and young people aimed at enabling them to reach their full potential. In England, the Children's Plan aims to facilitate this (DCSF 2007). The devolved administrations take a similar approach, in Wales through Rights of Children and Young Persons (Wales) Measure 2011(Welsh Government 2011a). The GIRFEC (Getting It Right For Every Child) programme48 provides the methodology for delivering the Scottish Government’s three social policy frameworks: the Early Years Framework; Achieving our Potential; and Equally Well (Scottish Government 2008b;c;d), which aim to develop the prevention and early intervention agenda. In Northern Ireland, Our Children and Young People – Our Pledge: A 10 year strategy for children and young people in Northern Ireland, 2006-2016 (OFMDFMNI 2006) sets a framework for addressing the needs of young people. Improved education and early interventions for young people and families (especially those most at risk) and improved public information about drugs are priority areas."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, p. 52.
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52. Syringe/Needle Sharing, UK

Harm Reduction

"The level of needle and syringe (direct) sharing reported by participants in the UAM Survey in England, Wales and Northern Ireland has declined from 33% in 2001 to 17% in 2011 (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b). Direct sharing was reported by 17% of the participants in England (regional range: 11% to 23%), 11% of those in Wales, and 29% of those in Northern Ireland in 2010 (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b). Throughout the period 2001 to 2011, direct sharing levels were consistently higher amongst those aged under 25 years than amongst older participants; in 2011, 24% of those aged under 25 years reported direct sharing compared with 17% of those aged 25 to 34 years and 16% of those aged 35 years and over (HPA 2012a; HPA 2012b).
"Sharing of any of the injecting equipment asked about the in the UAM Survey (i.e. needles, syringes, mixing containers, water or filters; direct and indirect sharing) was reported by 37% of those participating in the survey in 2011. Sharing of any of this equipment was reported by 38% of the participants in England (regional range: 31% to 49%), by 32% in Wales, and by 37% in Northern Ireland in 2009 (HPA 2012a).
"In Scotland, data from the Scottish Drug Misuse Database indicates that 7% of PWID reported current needle and syringe sharing in 2010/11, this is a decline from 12% during 2006/07 (ISD Scotland 2012a)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), p. 114.
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53. Northern Ireland Needle and Syringe Exchange Scheme Activity

"In Northern Ireland during 2009/10:
"• There were 15,828 visits to participating services by users of the scheme. This is an increase of 18% (2,439 visits) on the 2008/09 figure (13,389 visits).
"• A cin bin is a sealed container which is used to safely dispose of used needles and syringes: 51% of cin bins issued to users of the scheme were returned in 2009/10 compared to 53% returned in 2008/09.
"• 153,625 syringes were issued in 2009/10, compared to 135,700 in 2008/09. This is an increase of 13%."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 2/2010: Statistics from the Northern Ireland Needle and Syringe Exchange Scheme, 2009/10 (June 2010), p. 1.
http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/nse...

54. Average Potency of Seized Cannabis in the UK, 2008

"• Twenty-three Police Forces in England and Wales participated in the study. Forces were requested to submit samples confiscated from street-level users. In early 2008, they submitted 2,921 samples for analysis to either the Forensic Science Service Ltd (FSS) or LGC Forensics at Culham (LGC F).
"• Initial laboratory examination showed that 80.8% were herbal cannabis and 15.3% were cannabis resin. The remaining 3.9% were either indeterminate or not cannabis.
"• Microscopic examination of around two-thirds of the samples showed that over 97% of the herbal cannabis had been grown by intensive methods (sinsemilla). The remainder was classed as traditional imported herbal cannabis.
"• Regional variations were found in the market share of herbal cannabis. Thus North Wales, South Wales, Cleveland and Devon and Cornwall submitted proportionately fewer herbal cannabis samples, whereas Essex, Metropolitan and Avon and Somerset submitted proportionately more. These differences were statistically significant at the 0.1% confidence interval.
"• The mean THC concentration (potency) of the sinsemilla samples was 16.2% (range = 4.1 to 46%). The median potency was 15.0%, close to values reported by others in the past few years.
"• The mean THC concentration (potency) of the traditional imported herbal cannabis samples was 8.4% (range = 0.3 to 22%); median = 9.0%. Only a very small number of samples were received and analysed.
"• The mean potency of cannabis resin was 5.9% (range = 1.3 to 27.8%). The median = 5.0% was typical of values reported by others over many years.
"• Cannabis resin had a mean CBD content of 3.5% (range = 0.1 to 7.3%), but the CBD content of herbal cannabis was less than 0.1% in nearly all cases.
"• There was a weak, but statistically-significant, correlation (r = 0.48; N = 112; P < 0.001) between the THC and the CBD content of resin."

Hardwick, Sheila; King, Leslie, "Home Office Cannabis Potency Study 2008," Home Office Scientific Development Branch (Sandridge, St Albans, UK: May 2008), p. 1.
http://www.dldocs.stir.ac.uk...

55. Estimated Annual Public Expenditure on Drugs in the UK

Economics

"Labelled public expenditure on drugs is estimated at around £1.1 billion per annum. Data on labelled public expenditure on drugs have been provided to the UK Focal Point annually from government departments and the devolved administrations but changes to drug funding in England makes the identification of drug-specific expenditure increasingly difficult. A recent estimate of the economic and social costs of drug supply in the UK for 2010/11 put the cost at around £10.7 billion (Mills et al. 2013). Using a similar methodology to a social and economic costs study in England and Wales for 2003/04 (Gordon et al. 2006), it was estimated that the economic and social costs of illicit drug use in Scotland were £3.5 billion in 2006 (Casey et al. 2009)."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, p. 24.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

56. Estimated Drug Control Spending in England, 2013-2014

"On 1st April 2013, local authorities became responsible for public health in England supported by a ring-fenced public health grant of £2.66 billion in 2013/14 and £2.79 billion in 2014/15. Historically, 34% of national spend on public health has been on substance misuse. Activity and performance on drug treatment influenced how much money local areas received in 2013-14 and will continue to be recognised in the target formula for the public health grants. This funding is no longer ring-fenced for the provision of drug treatment services (see section 5.2.2). In addition, there is no longer central funding for the routing of offenders into treatment, historically called the Drug Interventions Programme (DIP), which provided funding of £32 million for England and £5.1 million for Wales in 2012/13.24 Alongside other crime, community and drugs grants, funding ended in March 2013. The Community Safety Fund is providing £90 million to Police and Crime Commissioners in 2013/14 for them to decide what to fund at a local level.
"Previously, Focal Point estimates of drug-related expenditure have assumed that funding allocations equate to expenditure since these were primarily ring-fenced grants. With the removal of this ring-fence, collecting data on drug-related expenditure will require reports of actual expenditure. From 2013/14 onwards, local authorities will be required to report on spending from the Public Health Grant on an annual basis. There are categories for adult drugs, adult alcohol and young people’s drug and alcohol spending. Estimated expenditure on drug misuse services for adults by local authorities is £569.1m for 2013/14, with a further £55.0m projected to be spent on drug and alcohol services for young people (DCLG 2013).25 These two elements of planned expenditure account for almost one-quarter (23%) of projected public health expenditure by local authorities. There are no requirements to report centrally on other income streams such as the Community Safety Fund."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, p. 34.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

57. Estimated Drug Control Spending in Wales

"From April 2013, the allocation of both the revenue and capital elements of the Substance Misuse Action Fund (SMAF) was made at a regional rather than local level with Area Planning Boards receiving the funding instead of Community Safety Partnerships. Substance misuse funding in Wales is shown in Table 1.1. It shows an increase in overall funding since 2006/07, with a doubling of funding for the Substance Misuse Action Fund over this period. Reductions since 2010/11 are principally due to funding decreases for the Drug Interventions Programme (DIP)."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, p. 34.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

58. Substance Misuse Funding In Wales, 2006-07 - 2013-14

Click here for complete datatable of Substance Misuse Funding In Wales, 2006-07 - 2013-14

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, Table 1.1, p. 35.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

59. Estimated Drug Control Budget in Northern Ireland, 2012-2013/2013-2014

"The majority of the funding for the New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs was devolved to the Public Health Agency (PHA) in 2009. Given that the Strategy is combined, it is difficult to provide data for ‘drugs only’ expenditure. In 2012/13, the PHA allocated just under £7 million to alcohol and drug-related services. In addition, almost £8 million is allocated to the provision of alcohol and drug treatment services within the Health and Social Care Trust. The Department retains a small amount of funding (£518,000 in 2012/13) for the provision of regional functions such as research and evaluation. Total substance misuse funding in 2012/13 was therefore in the region of £15,518,000, similar to previous years. Figures for 2013/14 are not available at this stage."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, p. 35.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

60. Oral Fluid Test Evaluations for DUI Enforcement

"It is disturbing that the sensitivities of the cannabis and cocaine tests were all quite low, although further testing of the cocaine tests is desirable due to the low prevalences and the low concentrations encountered in this study. There are several countries in Central and Southern Europe for which these two substance classes are of special interest. On the other hand, it seems the sensitivities of the devices are generally better for amphetamines, a frequently encountered drug class among the DUI drivers in the Nordic countries. The suitability of the device for the intended national DUI population should also be considered, for example, PCP is rarely, if ever, found in Europe, therefore at the current time utilising a PCP test is unnecessary. Since the on-site tests are relatively expensive the suitability of all the individual substance tests incorporated in the device should be considered.
"The evaluation showed that none of the evaluated tests is on a desirable level (>80% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) for all of the separate tests that they comprised. However, there were tests that performed already on a promising level for one or more substance classes. The DrugTest 5000 had the best overall results. The next best device was Rapid STAT, which performed at a similar level, except for the cocaine test which was somewhat less sensitive. Clearly the best device in terms of sensitivity for amphetamines was the DrugWipe 5+."

Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID Project) 6th Framework Programme, "Analytical evaluation of oral fluid screening devices and preceding selection procedures," Deliverable 3.2.2 (Finland: National Institute for Health and Welfare, March 30, 2010), p. 95.
http://www.druid-project.eu/Dr...

61. United Kingdom Drug Strategy

Laws and Policies

"The United Kingdom Government is responsible for setting the overall strategy and for its delivery in the devolved administrations only in matters where it has reserved power (SQ32). A new drug strategy was launched in December 2010 (HM Government 2010) replacing that of the previous Government, which was published in 2008 (HM Government 2008). The 2010 Strategy places a much greater emphasis on supporting those who are drug dependent to achieve recovery – and also widens the focus on dependence to prescription and over-the-counter medicines and tackling emerging new psychoactive substances (NPS). Within the strategy, policies concerning health, education, housing and social care are confined to England; those for policing and the criminal justice system cover England and Wales.
"The Scottish Government and Welsh Government’s national drug strategies were published in 2008, (Scottish Government 2008a; WAG 2008a) the latter combining drugs, alcohol and addiction to prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines. Each strategy aims to make further progress on reducing harm and helping individuals recover from their drug problems. The Scottish and Welsh strategy documents are also accompanied by an action or implementation plan, providing a detailed set of objectives; actions and responsibilities; expected outcomes; and a corresponding timescale for delivery (Scottish Government 2008a; WAG 2008b; Welsh Government 2013a). Each plan reflects the devolution of responsibilities to the national Government.
"Northern Ireland’s strategy for reducing the harm related to alcohol and drug misuse, the New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs (NSD), was launched in 2006. The NSD contained actions and outcomes, at both the regional and local level, to achieve its overarching aims (DHSSPSNI 2006). A review of the NSD was conducted in 2010, and, after consultation, a revised strategy, the New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs Phase 2, 2011-2016, was launched in January 2012 (DHSSPSNI 2011)."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, pp. 23-24.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

62. Basic UK Drug Laws

"The United Kingdom (UK) consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England accounts for 84% of the UK population. A number of powers have been devolved from the United Kingdom Parliament to Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, but each has different levels of devolved responsibilities.
"The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is the principal legislation in the United Kingdom for the control and supply of drugs that are considered dangerous or otherwise harmful when misused. This Act divides such drugs into three Classes (A, B and C) to broadly reflect their relative harms and sets maximum criminal penalties for possession, supply and production in relation to each class.
"Drugs in Class A include cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, magic mushrooms, heroin, methadone, methylamphetamine and injectable amphetamines. Class B drugs include amphetamine, cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinone derivatives including mephedrone, as well as, since 2012, pipradrol related compounds including desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) and diphenylprolinol (D2PM) and, since 2013, methoxetamine and related compounds. Class C drugs include anabolic steroids, tranquillisers, ketamine, benzodiazepines and piperazines (such as BZP).
"Most drugs controlled under the Act are place in one of five schedules to the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 based on an assessment of their medicinal or therapeutic usefulness and the need for legitimate access and their potential harms when misused.1
"The Drugs Act 2005 amended sections of The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, strengthening police powers in relation to the supply of drugs. The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 added provisions for 12-month temporary class drug orders (TCDOs) enabling law enforcement activity against those trafficking and supplying temporary class drugs. Methoxetamine became the first drug subject to a TCDO in the UK in 2012 and, in June 2013, two groups of substances, known as 'NBOMe' and 'Benzofury' compounds (14 in total), were also placed under a TCDO."

Reitox Focal Point at Public Health England, United Kingdom Drug Situation 2013 Edition. UK Focal Point on Drugs Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Oct. 31, 2013, p. 23.
http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/...

63. National Drug Strategies for Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland

"The Scottish Government and Welsh Government’s national drug strategies were published in 2008, the latter combining drugs, alcohol and addiction to prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines. All three strategies aim to make further progress on reducing harm and each focuses on recovery. The Scottish and Welsh strategy documents are also accompanied by an action or implementation plan, providing a detailed set of objectives; actions and responsibilities; expected outcomes; and a corresponding time scale (Scottish Government 2008a; WAG 2008a; WAG 2008b). Each plan reflects the devolution of responsibilities to the national government.
"Northern Ireland’s strategy for reducing the harm related to alcohol and drug misuse, the New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs (NSD), was launched in 2006. The NSD contains actions and outcomes, at both the regional and local level, to achieve its overarching aims (DHSSPSNI 2006). A review of the NSD was conducted in 2010, and a revised document was issued for public consultation in March 2011. It is anticipated that the revised document, entitled The New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs Phase 2 – 2011-2016 will be published later in 2011."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom drug situation: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) 2011" (Lisbon, Portugal: EMCDDA, Nov. 2012), p. 26.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/at...

64. Progress Toward Strategy Goals, Wales

"The Substance Misuse Annual Report 2010 (WAG 2010a) sets out the progress made in implementing the Welsh Assembly’s 10-year substance misuse strategy. An annex to the report sets out progress against the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).21 Data show a 12% decrease in reported serious acquisitive crime since the previous year and a 19% decrease since baseline. Other achievements include an increase in the proportion of clients waiting no more than 10 working days between treatment referral and assessment, from 55% at baseline to 65% in 2009/10 and the creation of 1,794 additional treatment places in 2009/10. However, drug-related deaths increased from 96 in 2008 to 132 in 2009 and there has been an increase in the proportion of clients waiting more than 10 working days between assessment and the beginning of treatment."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom drug situation: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) 2011" (Lisbon, Portugal: EMCDDA, Nov. 2012), p. 33.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/at...

65. Needle and Syringe Exchange Policy, Northern Ireland

"1.2 In 2000 funding was made available to develop a free needle and syringe exchange scheme in community pharmacies in Northern Ireland. With input from community pharmacists and other expert advisors, and taking account of models of best practice developed elsewhere, the Northern Ireland Needle and Syringe Exchange Scheme (NSES) was introduced in April 2001.
"1.3 Initially five pharmacies were involved in the scheme; by the end of 2009/10 there were twelve pharmacies and one Community Addiction Services clinic offering needle and syringe exchange. These were chosen based on their willingness to participate, their location, and the assessed need for needle exchange in the locality."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 2/2010: Statistics from the Northern Ireland Needle and Syringe Exchange Scheme, 2009/10 (June 2010), p. 2
http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/nse...

66. Experiment With Reclassification of Cannabis

"The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) (No. 2) Order 20035 reclassified cannabinol and cannabinol derivatives (previously Class A drugs), and cannabis and cannabis resin (previously Class B) as Class C drugs; effective from January 2004. This followed an assessment of their relative harmfulness (ACMD 2002), and should enable a more effective message to be conveyed about the graded scale of danger of different types of drugs, according to their classification. In addition, it reinforces Government’s priority to tackle those drugs that cause the most harm: Class A drugs.
"With reclassification, the maximum sentence for possession has been reduced from five to two years imprisonment. However, penalties for drug-related offences have been increased; the maximum penalty for trafficking Class C drugs has increased from five to 14 years imprisonment. Under the Cannabis Enforcement Guidance issued by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO 2003) to police forces in September 2003, there is a presumption against arrest for those aged 18 or over found in possession of cannabis6. Guidance is directed at ensuring that certain individual offenders are dealt with appropriately. Guidance relates to:
"• those repeatedly dealt with for possession of cannabis (repeat offenders);
"• those whose cannabis use causes or threatens to cause public disorder; and
"• those in possession of cannabis in or near premises where young people are present and vulnerable (e.g. schools, youth clubs and play areas).
"It is expected that for most possession offences, a police warning and confiscation of the drug will be sufficient. The subsequent time saved is intended to allow the police to focus greater resources on priority areas such as tackling Class A drug supply offences."

UK Focal Point, "United Kingdom Drug Situation. Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) 2004" (Lisbon, Portugal: EMCDDA, 2005), pp. 16-17.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/at...

67. Development of Substitution Treatment Policy, Northern Ireland

"1.3 The Substitute Prescribing Implementation Group was created by the DHSSPS and in February 2004 ‘Northern Ireland Guidelines on Substitution Treatment for Opiate Dependence’ were published. The new guidelines, including the arrangements for the monitoring and evaluation of Substitute Prescribing, were introduced on 1 April 2004.
"1.4 Subsequently the Public Health Information and Research Branch (PHIRB) formerly known as Drug and Alcohol Information and Research Unit (DAIRU), in conjunction with the treatment services responsible for delivering Substitute Prescribing, developed a series of monitoring forms. The Northern Ireland Substitute Prescribing Database (SPD) has been developed and is maintained by PHIRB. All data is supplied in an anonymised form to PHIRB for input to the SPD.
"1.5 The Northern Ireland Substitute Prescribing Database (SPD) was developed and, using the SP1, SP2 and SP3 forms, data collection began on 1 April 2004.
"1.6 There are currently thirteen statutory specialist drug services from across Northern Ireland supplying data on problem drug users presenting to be considered for Substitute Prescribing treatment."

Northern Ireland Statistics & Research Agency, Statistical Bulletin PHIRB 4/2010, "Statistics from the Northern Ireland Substitute Prescribing Database: 31 March 2010," September 2010, p. 2.
http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/sub...

68. Diverting Offenders to Treatment in England

"In England the Department of Health, the Ministry of Justice, HM Court Services, the National Offender Management Service and the Home Office are working together to take forward government proposals to invest in liaison and diversion services at police stations and courts to ensure that an individual’s health needs or vulnerabilities are identified and assessed early and that they are linked to appropriate treatment services. Within this wider programme, an 'Alternatives' pilot has been set up to test alternatives to custody at the point of sentencing, i.e. court based activity. The project is restricted to those offenders who have mental health problems, including personality disorder, and/or a substance misuse problem and whose index offence and risk of reoffending is of sufficient seriousness to attract a short prison sentence.
"Four substance misuse pilots commenced in October 2011, focusing on offenders receiving DRRs [Drug Rehabilitation Requirements] as part of a community sentence. A further twelve pilots focusing on offenders receiving Mental Health Treatment Requirements began work in April 2012. The pilot sites bring together treatment (residential and community based provision), rehabilitation and restorative justice. The schemes seek to offer a balance between punitive elements and rehabilitation and include life skills training, gaining qualifications, peer support, and wraparound support services. The Department of Health is conducting an evaluation of the health and criminal justice benefits of these schemes."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom Drug Situation 2012 Edition: Annual Report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)" (London, England: UK Government, Department of Health, October 31, 2012), pp. 151-152.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/ht...
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/at...

69. Policing of Cannabis in England

South Bank University's Criminal Policy Research Unit conducted a detailed study of the policing of cannabis in England. The study found that:
"One in seven of all known offenders in England and Wales were arrested for the possession of cannabis.
"There has been a tenfold increase in the number of possession offences since the mid-1970s. There is no evidence that this increase has been an intended consequence of specific policy.
"Possession offences most often come to light as a by-product of other investigations.
"A minority of patrol officers ‘specialise’ in cannabis offences: 3 per cent of officers who had made any arrests for possession accounted for 20 per cent of all arrests.
"Arrests for possession very rarely lead to the discovery of serious crimes.
"Officers often turn a blind eye to possession offences, or give informal warnings.
"Of the 69,000 offenders who were cautioned or convicted in 1999, just over half (58 per cent) were cautioned.
"The financial costs of policing cannabis amount to at least £50 million a year (including sentencing costs), and absorb the equivalent of 500 full-time police officers.
"The researchers conclude that:
"- re-classification of cannabis to a Class C drug will yield some financial savings, allowing patrol officers to respond more effectively to other calls on their time;
"- the main benefits of reclassification would be non-financial, in removing a source of friction between the police and young people;
"- there would be a very small decline in detection of serious offences, but this should readily be offset by the savings in police time."

"Findings: The Policing of Cannabis as a Class B Drug," (London, England: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, March 2002), p. 1.
http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/fi...

70. Drug Rehabilitation Requirement, England and Wales

"The Drug Rehabilitation Requirement (DRR) within a community order or suspended sentence of imprisonment is an intensive vehicle for tackling the drug misuse and offending of many of the most serious and persistent drug misusing offenders in England and Wales (SQ31). DRRs involve treatment, regular testing and court reviews of progress and are subject to rigorous enforcement.
"There is no longer a DRR commencement target in the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) Performance Metrics but data are collected from probation trusts and published in Offender Management Caseload Statistics. The most recent published data shows that 16,071 DRRs were commenced in 2010, 11,996 as part of a community order and 4,075 as part of a suspended sentence order. This represents a decrease from 16,207 starts in 2009 and 17,457 in 2008. The reduction in DRR commencements was partly due to police initiatives which divert offenders from charge and a change in focus from commencement to completion targets (MOJ 2011b).
"The main performance indicator for DRRs in 2010/11 was the completion rate with the number of completions as a secondary indicator. Fifty-six per cent of DRRs were successfully completed in 2010/11 against a target of 49% with all regions reaching this target. There were 8,392 successful DRR completions which significantly exceeded the aggregated annual target332 of 6,837 (MOJ 2011b).
"The completion rate has doubled since 2003. This is encouraging because research into DTTOs, the predecessor of the DRR in England and Wales, suggests that offenders who complete orders have much lower reconviction rates (53%) than those who do not (91%), though it is not possible to attribute the difference entirely to the effect of the order (Hough et al. 2003)."

UK Focal Point on Drugs, "United Kingdom drug situation: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) 2011" (Lisbon, Portugal: EMCDDA, Nov. 2012), Table 9.1, pp. 147-148.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/at...

71. Recommendation of British Advisory Council on Misuse of Drugs

"Recommendation 1. Local service planners need to review local needle and syringe services (and be supported in this work) in order to take steps to increase access and availability to sterile injecting equipment and to increase the proportion of injectors who receive 100 per cent coverage of sterile injecting equipment in relation to their injecting frequency."

Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, "The Primary Prevention of Hepatitis C Among Injecting Drug Users," (London, United Kingdom: February 2009), p. 28.
https://www.gov.uk/government/...

72. Scientific Validity of Drug Classification System

"Our findings raise questions about the validity of the current Misuse of Drugs Act classification, despite the fact that it is nominally based on an assessment of risk to users and society. The discrepancies between our findings and current classifications are especially striking in relation to psychedelic-type drugs. Our results also emphasise that the exclusion of alcohol and tobacco from the Misuse of Drugs Act is, from a scientific perspective, arbitrary. We saw no clear distinction between socially acceptable and illicit substances. The fact that the two most widely used legal drugs lie in the upper half of the ranking of harm is surely important information that should be taken into account in public debate on illegal drug use. Discussions based on a formal assessment of harm rather than on prejudice and assumptions might help society to engage in a more rational debate about the relative risks and harms of drugs."

"David Nutt, Leslie A King, William Saulsbury, Colin Blakemore, "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse," Lancet (2007), Vol 369, p. p. 1052.
http://www.thelancet.com/journ...

73. Low Priority Cannabis Violations

Law enforcement authorities in the UK conducted an experiment in policing in the London borough of Lambeth, wherein cannabis violations were given a low priority. Researchers for PRS Consultancy Group undertook an evaluation of the program at the request of the Borough Police Commander. The researchers found that:
"The measures of police activity demonstrate that the policy has succeeded in releasing resources, and that activity against more serious offences has increased.
"During the 6 months of the evaluation, Lambeth officers issued 450 warnings. This released at least 1350 hours of officer time (by avoiding custody procedures and interviewing time), equivalent to 1.8 full-time officers. A further 1150 hours of CJU staff time was released by avoiding case file preparation.
"In comparison with the same 6 months in 2000, Lambeth officers recorded 35% more cannabis possession offences and 11% more for trafficking. In adjoining Boroughs possession offences fell by 4% and trafficking fell by 34%.
"Lambeth also increased its activity against Class A drugs relative to adjoining Boroughs."

PRS Consultancy Group, "Evaluation of Lambeth's pilot of warnings for possession of cannabis - summary of final report," March 2002, p. 1.
http://www.ukcia.org/research/...

74. Strip Searches of Arrestees, England

"One study on the role of closed circuit television in a London police station emphasizes the potential for abuse and discrimination when police officers have discretion to strip search detainees.174 From May 1999 to September 2000, officers in the station processed over 7000 arrests.175 The station’s policy allowed officers of the same sex to conduct strip searches only if they felt it was necessary to remove drugs or a harmful object.176
"For each arrest, the researchers documented the detainee’s age, sex, ethnicity, and offense.177 A statistical analysis of these factors revealed that, as expected, people arrested for drug offenses were the most likely to be strip searched.178 The results also showed that while all other variables (age, sex, and offense) were controlled, females were less likely to be strip searched than males, and arrestees who were seventeen to twenty-three years old were more likely to be strip searched than other age groups.179 In addition, ethnicity influenced whether a strip search was conducted even when all other variables were taken into account. Specifically, compared to white Europeans, African-Caribbeans were twice as likely to be searched while Arabics and Orientals were half as likely.180 The researchers in the study concluded that the data at least 'raise . . . the spectre of police racism' and reveal that 'policing is unequally experienced,' though it is impossible to determine whether the disproportionate number of strip searches of African-Caribbeans is due to institutional racism or unintentional discrimination.181"

Ha, Daphne, "Blanket Policies for Strip Searching Pretrial Detainees: An Interdisciplinary Argument for Reasonableness," Fordham Law Review (New York, NY: Fordham University School of Law, May 2011) Vol. 79, No. 6, pp. 2740-2741.
http://fordhamlawreview.org/as...