SEPs and HIV
A literature review in 2004 by the European Union's drug monitoring agency, the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, found that "Major reviews (summarised in Vlahov and Junge, 1998; Bastos and Strathdee, 2000; Ferrini, 2000) suggest that NSPs (Needle and Syringe Programs) may reduce rates of seroconversion to HIV and hepatitis by one third or more, without negative side effects on the number of IDUs (Vlahov and Junge, 1998). A landmark study from Hurley et al. combined HIV seroprevalence data from 81 cities with (n=52) or without (n=29) NSPs (Hurley et al., 1997). They showed that the average annual seroprevalence was 11% lower in cities with an NSP than in cities without an NSP, providing important evidence on the effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of HIV."
de Wit, Ardine and Jasper Bos, "Cost-Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Programmes: A Review of the Literature," in Hepatitis C and Injecting Drug Use: Impact, Costs and Policy Options, Johannes Jager, Wien Limburg, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Maarten Postma, Lucas Wiessing (eds.), European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2004.