MDMA-Involved Mortality, 1998
The Drug Abuse Warning Network estimates that ecstasy was involved in -- though not necessarily the cause of -- nine deaths in 1998. According to DAWN's 2002 mortality report: "The DAWN metropolitan area profiles include information on 'club drugs' as a group, combining all mentions of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy), Ketamine, gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) and its precursor gamma butyrolactone (GBL), and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol). As in prior years, these substances accounted for very few deaths in any of the DAWN metropolitan areas. Seven metropolitan areas reported no deaths involving these drugs, and only 7 metropolitan areas reported more than 5 mentions of club drugs. The areas with the highest numbers in 2002 were New York (19 mentions), Miami (9), Chicago (7), New Orleans (7), Philadelphia (9), Boston (6), and San Diego (6). Club drugs were rarely reported alone."
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, "Mortality Data From the Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2002," DAWN Series D25, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 043875 (Rockville, MD), 2004, pp. 9-10.