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(Clients Enter Drug Courts At Different Points In The Process Depending On The Court) "Problem-solving courts varied by the point at which they intervene in a case. Some courts took cases that had reached a specific processing stage, while others took on cases at multiple processing points. Additionally, problem-solving courts accepted multiple case types and identified different entry points for criminal or civil and family cases.

Source: 
Strong, Suzanne M., PhD, Rantala, Ramona R., and Kyckelhahn, Tracey, PhD. Census of Problem-Solving Courts, 2012. Bureau of Justice Statistics. September 2016, NCJ249803. Page 6.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5744
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpsc12.pdf

(Factors in the Transition from Prescription Opiate Use to Heroin Use) "Multiple studies that have examined why some persons who abuse prescription opioids initiate heroin use indicate that the cost and availability of heroin were primary factors in this process.

Source: 
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E., Christopher M. Jones, Pharm.D., M.P.H., and Grant T. Baldwin, Ph.D., M.P.H. Relationship between Nonmedical Prescription-Opioid Use and Heroin Use. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:154-163. January 14, 2016. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1508490
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1508490
http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1508490

Overview

Source: 
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E., Christopher M. Jones, Pharm.D., M.P.H., and Grant T. Baldwin, Ph.D., M.P.H. Relationship between Nonmedical Prescription-Opioid Use and Heroin Use. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:154-163. January 14, 2016. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1508490
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1508490

(Comparison of Incarceration Rates for Various Nations) "Prison population rates vary considerably between different regions of the world, and between different parts of the same continent. For example:
"• in Africa the median rate for western African countries is 52 whereas for southern African countries it is 188;
"• in the Americas the median rate for south American countries is 242 whereas for Caribbean countries it is 347;

Source: 
Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Eleventh Edition)" (London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2016), p. 2.
http://www.prisonstudies.org/research-publications?shs_term_node_tid_dep...
http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/wor...

(Estimated Drug-Induced Mortality in the US, 2013, by Gender and Race/Ethnicity) "In 2013, a total of 46,471 persons died of drug-induced causes in the United States (Tables 10, 12, and 13). This category includes deaths from poisoning and medical conditions caused by use of legal or illegal drugs, as well as deaths from poisoning due to medically prescribed and other drugs. It excludes unintentional injuries, homicides, and other causes indirectly related to drug use, as well as newborn deaths due to the mother’s drug use.

Source: 
Xu JQ, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Bastian BA. Deaths: Final data for 2013. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 2. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. February 16, 2016, pp. 10-11.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf

(Estimated rate of persons supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000 and 2005–2014)

Source: 
Danielle Kaeble, Lauren Glaze, Anastasios Tsoutis, and Todd Minton, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2014," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2015, Revised January 21, 2016), NCJ249513, Table 2, p. 3.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5519
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus14.pdf

(Effect of Cannabis Use by Adolescents on Cognition and IQ and the Potential Influence of Tobacco) "Compared with those in our sample who had never tried cannabis, teenagers who had used cannabis at least 50 times were 17 times more likely (84% vs. 5%) to have smoked cigarettes more than 20 times in their lifetime. Accounting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both IQ and educational performance.

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

(Effect of Marijuana Use by Adolescents on Cognition and IQ) "In summary, the notion that cannabis use itself is causally related to lower IQ and poorer educational performance was not supported in this large teenage sample. However, this study indeed has limitations, in particular the young age of outcome assessment.

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

Marijuana Use, Cognition and IQ

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

(Services Offered by Syringe Services Programs / Syringe Exchange Programs) "Despite differences in program size, operating budgets, and staffing among SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] in rural, suburban, and urban locations, there were similarities in on-site services (Table 3). Most SSPs offered HIV counseling and testing (87% among rural SSPs, 71% among suburban SSPs, and 90% among urban SSPs) and HCV testing (67% among rural SSPs, 79% among suburban SSPs, and 78% among urban SSPs).

Source: 
Don C. Des Jarlais PhD, Ann Nugent, Alisa Solberg MPA, Jonathan Feelemyer MS, Jonathan Mermin MD, and Deborah Holtzman PhD. "Syringe Service Programs for Persons Who Inject Drugs in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas - United States, 2013," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2015;64:1337-1341.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6448.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6448a3.htm
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Estimated rate of persons supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000 and 2005–2014
Total correctional populationa Community supervision population Incarcerated populationb