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(911 Calls, Good Samaritan Laws, And Opiate Overdoses) "Among heroin users, research indicates fear of police response as the most common barrier to not calling 911 during overdoses.12,13 In a Baltimore study, 37 % of injection drug users who did not call 911 during an overdose endorsed concerns about police as the most important reason they did not call.13 Several states have enacted laws, commonly called Good Samaritan laws, to encourage calling 911 during overdoses on controlled substances; these laws are in part modeled on college campus alco

Source: 
Banta-Green C J, Beletsky L, Schoeppe JA, Coffin PO, Kuszler PC. Police officers’ and paramedics' experiences with overdose and their knowledge and opinions of Washington State's drug overdose-naloxone-Good Samaritan law. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2013;90(6):1102-;11.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900788
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3853169/pdf/11524_2013_Artic...

(Impact Of Good Samaritan Laws On Arrests) "Ninety-three percent of police respondents had attended a serious opioid overdose (defined in the survey) in their career, with 64 % having attended one in the past year. While 77 % of officers felt it was important they were at the scene of an overdose to protect medical personnel, a minority, 34 %, indicated it was important they were present for the purpose of enforcing laws. Arrest during the last overdose officers encountered was rare, with only 1 % of overdose victims and 1 % of bystanders being arrested.

Source: 
Banta-Green C J, Beletsky L, Schoeppe JA, Coffin PO, Kuszler PC. Police officers’ and paramedics' experiences with overdose and their knowledge and opinions of Washington State's drug overdose-naloxone-Good Samaritan law. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2013;90(6):1102-;11.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900788
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3853169/pdf/11524_2013_Artic...

(Minor Changes In Federal Forfeiture Policy Announced By US Justice Department January 2015) On January 16, 2015, the US Justice Department and Attorney General Eric Holder announced a policy change regarding federal forfeiture:

Source: 
"Attorney General Prohibits Federal Agency Adoptions of Assets Seized by State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies Except Where Needed to Protect Public Safety," Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, Jan. 16, 2015.
http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/attorney-general-prohibits-federal-agency-...
http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/opa/press-releases/attachment...

(Alcohol Poisoning Deaths in the US, 2010-2012) "On average, 6 people died every day from alcohol poisoning in the US from 2010 to 2012. Alcohol poisoning is caused by drinking large quantities of alcohol in a short period of time. Very high levels of alcohol in the body can shutdown critical areas of the brain that control breathing, heart rate, and body temperature, resulting in death. Alcohol poisoning deaths affect people of all ages but are most common among middle-aged adults and men."

Source: 
"Alcohol Poisoning Deaths: A deadly consequence of binge drinking," CDC Vital Signs, January 2015, p. 1.
http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/alcohol-poisoning-deaths/
http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/pdf/2015-01-vitalsigns.pdf

(Restrictions Against Federal Interference With State-Authorized Hemp Production Pilot Programs) The federal budget bill for FY2015 contains this provision:
"SEC. 539. None of the funds made available by this Act may be used in contravention of section 7606 ('Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research') of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 113–79) by the Department of Justice or the Drug Enforcement Administration."

Source: 
"Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015," US Congress, Enrolled Bill Published December 17, 2014, p. 88.
https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hr83/BILLS-113hr83enr.pdf

(Limitation on Federal Interference With Implementation of State Medical Marijuana Laws) In December 2014, the federal budget for FY2015 was enacted, containing this provision:

Source: 
"Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015," US Congress, Enrolled Bill Published December 17, 2014, p. 88.
https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hr83/BILLS-113hr83enr.pdf

(Opioids Do Not Have Potential To Cause Malformations To An Embryo Or Fetus) "It is important to note that, contrary to alcohol, benzodiazepines and nicotine, opioids do not have teratogenic potential (3). Thus, special attention needs to be paid to dependence and abuse of legal substances and prescription drugs that can have severe consequences for the foetus and newborn, such as foetal developmental disorders or sudden infant death syndrome (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Center for Excellence, 2013; McDonnell-Naughton et al., 2012)."

Source: 
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Pregnancy and opioid use: strategies for treatment," EMCDDA Papers (Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2014), p. 3.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/emcdda-papers/pregnacy-opioid-u...
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_232995_EN_TDAU14006ENN....

(Risk and Treatability of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome) "Untreated opiate dependence in pregnant women is associated with many environmental and medical factors that contribute to poor maternal and child outcomes. Illicit opioid consumption is associated with a sixfold increase in obstetric complications such as low birth weight, toxaemia, third trimester bleeding, malpresentation, puerperal morbidity (2), foetal distress and meconium aspiration.

Source: 
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Pregnancy and opioid use: strategies for treatment," EMCDDA Papers (Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2014), p. 3.
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/emcdda-papers/pregnacy-opioid-u...
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_232995_EN_TDAU14006ENN....

(Prevalence Of Persistent Pain Among Adults In The US) "Approximately 19.0% of adults in the United States reported persistent pain in 2010, but prevalence rates vary significantly by subgroup (Table 1). Older adults are much more likely to report persistent pain than younger adults, with adults aged 60 to 69 at highest risk (AOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 2.7–5.8). Women are at slightly higher risk than men (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.7), as are adults who did not graduate from high school (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.7).

Source: 
Jae Kennedy, John M. Roll, Taylor Schraudner, Sean Murphy, and Sterling McPherson, "Prevalence of Persistent Pain in the U.S. Adult Population: New Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey," The Journal of Pain, Vol. 15, No. 10 (October), 2014, pp. 979-984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2014.05.009
http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900%2814%2900774-3/abstract

(Extent Of Use And Types Of Pain Conditions For Which Complementary And Alternative Medicine (CAM) Are Used In The US) "For which pain conditions are CAM treatments most often used?

Source: 
Institute of Medicine, "Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research" (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2011), p. 135.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172
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