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(Alcohol as a Factor in Overdose Deaths Attributed to Other Drugs, US, 2014) "In 2014, alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, were involved in 15% of all drug overdose deaths and 17% of the drug overdose deaths that mentioned involvement of at least one specific drug. Table E shows the frequency of alcohol involvement among drug overdose deaths involving specific drugs.
"• Alcohol involvement was mentioned in 12%–22% of the drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, alprazolam, diazepam, or cocaine.

Source: 
Warner M, Trinidad JP, Bastian BA, et al. Drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths: United States, 2010–2014. National vital statistics reports; vol 65 no 10. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016, pp. 5-6.
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/nvsr.htm
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_10.pdf

(296 People Serving Time in Federal Prisons in the US Whose Most Serious Offense was Possession of a Drug) The US Dept. of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that on Sept. 30, 2012, there were a total of 187,773 people sentenced and serving time in US federal prison for any offense. Of those, 97,214 people (51.8% of the total) had as their most serious charge a drug offense: 96,907 of them for drug trafficking or manufacture (51.6% of the total), 296 for drug possession (0.16% of the total), and 11 for "other"* drug offenses.

Source: 
Sam Taxy, Julie Samuels, and William Adams, Urban Institute. “Drug Offenders in Federal Prison: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data.” NCJ248648. US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics: Washington, DC, Oct. 2015, p. 8, Table 8.
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/dofp12.pdf
https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5436

(46,000 People in State Prisons in the US Whose Most Serious Offense was Possession of a Drug) The US Dept. of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that at yearend 2014, 1,316,409 people were serving sentences in state prisons in the US, of whom 206,300 (15.7%) had as their most serious offence a drug charge: 46,000 for drug possession (3.5% of all state prison inmates), and 160,300 for "other" drug offences, including manufacturing and sale (12.2% of all state prison inmates).

Source: 
E. Ann Carson, PhD, and Elizabeth Anderson. Prisoners In 2015. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016, NCJ250229, p. 14, Table 9, and p. 30, Appendix Table 5.
https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5869
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15.pdf

(Total Number of Adults Incarcerated in US Prisons and Jails, 2015) "At yearend 2015, an estimated 2,173,800 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails in the United States, down about 51,300 persons compared to yearend 2014. This was the largest decline in the incarcerated population since it first decreased in 2009. By yearend 2015, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level observed since 2004 (2,136,600) (not shown).

Source: 
Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2016), NCJ250374, p. 2.
https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5870
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus15.pdf

(US States Which Have Legalized Marijuana) Eight states have legalized adult (aged 21 and older) personal use of marijuana and legally regulate the production, distribution, and sale of marijuana: Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington state. The District of Columbia legalized personal possession and cultivation of marijuana by adults aged 21 and older.

(Toxic Effects of Kratom) "During the past 3 years, there have been an increasing number of case reports15,17,29 describing unusual adverse reactions in patients who had been using kratom or kratom-based products. The acute adverse effects of kratom experienced by many users appear to be a direct result of kratom's stimulant and opioid activities.6,9,11,30,31 Stimulant effects may manifest themselves in some individuals as anxiety, irritability, and increased aggression. Opioid-like effects include sedation, nausea, constipation, and itching.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Analgesic and opioid-like effects of Kratom) "In Southeast Asia, kratom has long been used for the management of pain and opium withdrawal.6,9-11,14 In the West, kratom is increasingly being used by individuals for the self-management of pain or withdrawal from opioid drugs such as heroin and prescription pain relievers.20,27 It is these aspects of kratom pharmacology that have received the most scientific attention.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Current Legal Status of Kratom in the US) "Although the findings of our literature and Internet searches strongly suggest a marked increase in kratom use in the United States and Europe, kratom still appears to be somewhat of an 'underground phenomenon.' During our searches of the literature and the internet, we found no evidence that kratom is currently marketed by any of the large nutritional supplement chain stores in the United States.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Current Use of Kratom in the US) "Evidence suggests that kratom is being used extensively for both medical and nonmedical purposes. Recent studies have shown that kratom contains a variety of active compounds that produce major pharmacologic effects at opioid and other receptors. Kratom and kratom-derived drugs may potentially be used for the management of pain, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and other clinical problems. At the same time, serious questions remain regarding the potential toxic effects and the abuse and addiction potential of kratom.

Source: 
Prozialeck, WC, Jivan, JK, and Andurkar, SV. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. December 2012;112(12):792-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212430
http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094342

(Services Made Available to Clients by Drug Courts, Mental Health Courts, and Standard Courts in the US)

Source: 
Strong, Suzanne M., PhD, Rantala, Ramona R., and Kyckelhahn, Tracey, PhD. Census of Problem-Solving Courts, 2012. Bureau of Justice Statistics. September 2016, NCJ249803. Page 18, Appendix Table 6.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5744
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpsc12.pdf
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Services Made Available to Clients by Drug Courts, Mental Health Courts, and Standard Courts in the US
Figures in Percent
Type of Service All courts Drug Courts Mental Health Courts
Treatment