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(US Surgeon General's Determination of Effectiveness of Syringe Exchange Programs, 2011) "The Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, VADM Regina Benjamin, M.D., M.B.A., has determined that a demonstration needle exchange program (or more appropriately called syringe services program or SSP) would be effective in reducing drug abuse and the risk of infection with the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

Source: 
Sebelius, Kathleen, Secretary of Health and Human Services, "Determination That a Demonstration Needle Exchange Program Would be Effective in Reducing Drug Abuse and the Risk of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Infection Among Intravenous Drug Users," Federal Register, February 23, 2011, Vol. 76, No. 36, p. 10038.

(Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cannabis Use in the US, 2012) "One area representative, from New York City, reported the continuing predominance in indicators and serious consequences of marijuana (as well as heroin and cocaine) and changes in marijuana trends as a key finding in that area for this reporting period. Marijuana indicator levels continued to be reported as high relative to other drugs, however, across all CEWG areas, based on treatment admissions and reports identified as marijuana/cannabis among drug items seized and analyzed.

Source: 
"Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the Community Epidemiology Work Group, Advance Report, June 2013" (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 2013), p. 18.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AdvanceReport2013.pdf

(Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Non-Prescription Use of Prescription Analgestic in the US, 2012) "Mixed results were noted for prescription opioids, with increases in indicators for prescription opioids as a key finding reported by representatives in two areas—New York City and San Francisco—based on treatment admissions data (primary treatment admissions for opioids/opiates other than heroin increased in 2012 from 2011 in New York City), numbers of prescriptions (the Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs in both New York City and San Francisco

Source: 
"Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the Community Epidemiology Work Group, Advance Report, June 2013" (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 2013), p. 4.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AdvanceReport2013.pdf

(Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cocaine Use in the US, 2012) "Methamphetamine indicators, which had been high relative to other drugs west of the Mississippi and low east of the Mississippi, and which had been reported as trending downward in recent years, appeared to be increasing in several CEWG areas. Five CEWG area representatives noted high and stable indicators or upward trending indicators for methamphetamine as a key finding. These areas were Atlanta, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Phoenix, and St. Louis.

Source: 
"Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the Community Epidemiology Work Group, Advance Report, June 2013" (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 2013), p. 4.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AdvanceReport2013.pdf

(Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cocaine Use in the US, 2012) "While cocaine continued to be the predominant illicit drug based on treatment and seizure data in most CEWG areas, five area representatives reported a continuing decline in cocaine indicators as a key finding in their areas—Atlanta, Boston, Cincinnati, Phoenix, and St. Louis. All five areas experienced decreases in cocaine reports among drug items seized and analyzed by NFLIS laboratories. Primary treatment admissions for cocaine declined in 2012 from 2011 in Atlanta, Boston, and St.

Source: 
"Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the Community Epidemiology Work Group, Advance Report, June 2013" (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 2013), p. 4.
http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AdvanceReport2013.pdf

(Effect Of Medical Marijuana Legalization On Crime Rates And Limitations Of Data) "Given that the current results failed to uncover a crime exacerbating effect attributable to MML, it is important to examine the findings with a critical eye. While we report no positive association between MML and any crime type, this does not prove MML has no effect on crime (or even that it reduces crime). It may be the case that an omitted variable, or set of variables, has confounded the associations and masked the true positive effect of MML on crime.

Source: 
Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, JC Barnes, and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, "The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006," PLoS ONE 9(3): e92816. March 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092816
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.00928...

(Effect of Medical Marijuana Legalization On Crime Rates) "In sum, these findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes. To be sure, medical marijuana laws were not found to have a crime exacerbating effect on any of the seven crime types. On the contrary, our findings indicated that MML precedes a reduction in homicide and assault.

Source: 
Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, JC Barnes, and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, "The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006," PLoS ONE 9(3): e92816. March 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092816
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.00928...

(Impact of Medical Marijuana Legalization (MML) on Crime Rates in States That Have Legalized Medical Cannabis) "The central finding gleaned from the present study was that MML is not predictive of higher crime rates and may be related to reductions in rates of homicide and assault. Interestingly, robbery and burglary rates were unaffected by medicinal marijuana legislation, which runs counter to the claim that dispensaries and grow houses lead to an increase in victimization due to the opportunity structures linked to the amount of drugs and cash that are present.

Source: 
Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, JC Barnes, and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, "The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006," PLoS ONE 9(3): e92816. March 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092816
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.00928...

(Causal Links Between Reduced Drug Use And Reduced Recividism Among Drug Court Clients) "However, one counter-explanation for the seemingly powerful linkage between reduced drug use and reduced criminal behavior is that both outcomes are, essentially, measures of compliance with drug court, probation, or other supervision requirements.

Source: 
Rossman, Shelli B., et al., "Final Report, Volume 4: The Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation: The Impact of Drug Courts" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 2011), p. 75.
http://nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/Pages/madce.aspx
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/237112.pdf

(Probability of Re-Offending by Drug Court Clients) "In the first six months of follow up, we found that drug court offenders were significantly less likely than the comparison group to report engaging in any criminal behavior (28 percent vs. 40 percent, p < .05); and drug court offenders averaged significantly fewer total instances of such behavior (12.8 vs. 34.1 criminal acts, p < .001). We detected additional significant differences in the prevalence of drug-related, DWI/DUI, and property-related criminal behavior.

Source: 
Rossman, Shelli B., et al., "Final Report, Volume 4: The Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation: The Impact of Drug Courts" (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 2011), p. 66.
http://nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/Pages/madce.aspx
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/237112.pdf
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