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(Comparison of Incarceration Rates for Various Nations) "Prison population rates vary considerably between different regions of the world, and between different parts of the same continent. For example:
"• in Africa the median rate for western African countries is 52 whereas for southern African countries it is 188;
"• in the Americas the median rate for south American countries is 242 whereas for Caribbean countries it is 347;

Source: 
Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Eleventh Edition)" (London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2016), p. 2.
http://www.prisonstudies.org/research-publications?shs_term_node_tid_dep...
http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/wor...

(Estimated Drug-Induced Mortality in the US, 2013, by Gender and Race/Ethnicity) "In 2013, a total of 46,471 persons died of drug-induced causes in the United States (Tables 10, 12, and 13). This category includes deaths from poisoning and medical conditions caused by use of legal or illegal drugs, as well as deaths from poisoning due to medically prescribed and other drugs. It excludes unintentional injuries, homicides, and other causes indirectly related to drug use, as well as newborn deaths due to the mother’s drug use.

Source: 
Xu JQ, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Bastian BA. Deaths: Final data for 2013. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 2. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. February 16, 2016, pp. 10-11.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf

(Estimated rate of persons supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000 and 2005–2014)

Source: 
Danielle Kaeble, Lauren Glaze, Anastasios Tsoutis, and Todd Minton, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2014," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2015, Revised January 21, 2016), NCJ249513, Table 2, p. 3.
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5519
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus14.pdf

(Effect of Cannabis Use by Adolescents on Cognition and IQ and the Potential Influence of Tobacco) "Compared with those in our sample who had never tried cannabis, teenagers who had used cannabis at least 50 times were 17 times more likely (84% vs. 5%) to have smoked cigarettes more than 20 times in their lifetime. Accounting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both IQ and educational performance.

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

(Effect of Marijuana Use by Adolescents on Cognition and IQ) "In summary, the notion that cannabis use itself is causally related to lower IQ and poorer educational performance was not supported in this large teenage sample. However, this study indeed has limitations, in particular the young age of outcome assessment.

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

Marijuana Use, Cognition and IQ

Source: 
C Mokrysz, R Landy, SH Gage, MR Munafò, JP Roiser, and HV Curran, "Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study," Journal of Psychopharmacology, 0269881115622241, first published on January 6, 2016 doi:10.1177/0269881115622241
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.full.pd...
http://jop.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/01/06/0269881115622241.abstrac...

(Services Offered by Syringe Services Programs / Syringe Exchange Programs) "Despite differences in program size, operating budgets, and staffing among SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] in rural, suburban, and urban locations, there were similarities in on-site services (Table 3). Most SSPs offered HIV counseling and testing (87% among rural SSPs, 71% among suburban SSPs, and 90% among urban SSPs) and HCV testing (67% among rural SSPs, 79% among suburban SSPs, and 78% among urban SSPs).

Source: 
Don C. Des Jarlais PhD, Ann Nugent, Alisa Solberg MPA, Jonathan Feelemyer MS, Jonathan Mermin MD, and Deborah Holtzman PhD. "Syringe Service Programs for Persons Who Inject Drugs in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas - United States, 2013," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2015;64:1337-1341.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6448.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6448a3.htm

(Centers for Disease Control on Syringe Exchange) "The basic service offered by SSPs [Syringe Services Programs] allows PWID [People Who Inject Drugs] to exchange used needles and syringes for new, sterile needles and syringes. Providing sterile needles and syringes and establishing appropriate disposal procedures substantially reduces the chances that PWID will share injection equipment and removes potentially HIV- and HCV-contaminated syringes from the community.

Source: 
Don C. Des Jarlais PhD, Ann Nugent, Alisa Solberg MPA, Jonathan Feelemyer MS, Jonathan Mermin MD, and Deborah Holtzman PhD. "Syringe Service Programs for Persons Who Inject Drugs in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas - United States, 2013," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2015;64:1337-1341.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6448.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6448a3.htm

(Funds Forfeited and Held by Government Agencies in the US in 2014) "Total financing sources realized by the Fund in FY 2014 were $3,777.3 million, an increase of $1,766.0 million compared to $2,011.3 million realized in FY 2013. This is the ninth year since inception of the Fund that it has exceeded $1 billion in deposits. In FY 2014 there were eight large fraud cases which yielded $3,502.9 million in forfeitures. Specifically, the Toyota and Bernard Madoff cases resulted in $2,900 million.

Source: 
"Audit of the Assets Forfeiture Fund and Seized Asset Deposit Fund Annual Financial Statements: Fiscal Year 2014, US Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Report 15-08, January 2015, p. 7.
https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2015/a1508.pdf

(Use Of Any Illegal Drug and Illegal Drugs Other Than Marijuana Among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the US)

Estimated rate of persons supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000 and 2005–2014
Total correctional populationa Community supervision population Incarcerated populationb

Source: 
Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Table 2-1, p. 45.
http://monitoringthefuture.org//pubs/monographs/mtf-vol1_2014.pdf
http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs.html
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Trends in Lifetime Prevalence of Use of Various Drugs
for 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the US
(Entries are in Percentages)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014