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HIV/AIDS, Race, and the Drug War

  1. (Persons Living with AIDS, by Race) According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), at year-end 2010 there were an estimated total of 499,167 persons living with a diagnosed HIV infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS) in the US and 6 dependent territories. Of these, 1,697 were American Indian/Alaska Native, 5,384 were Asian, 209,707 were Black/African-American, 110,778 were Hispanic/Latino, 499 were Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, 162,308 were White, and 8,700 were multiple races.

    Source: 
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011, "Rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents, by area of residence, 2011—United States and 6 dependent areas"; Vol. 23, Table 18b, pp. 66-67. Published February 2013. Accessed May 21, 2013.
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_2011_HIV_Surveillance_Report_vol_2...


  2. Persons Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection Ever Classified as Stage 3 (AIDS),
    by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, Year-End 2010 - United States and 6 Dependent Areas

    American Indian/
    Alaska Native
    Asian Black/
    African-American
    Hispanic/
    Latino
    Native Hawaiian/
    Other Pacific Islander
    White Multiple
    Races
    Total
    Transmission Category
      Male Adult or Adolescent
    Male-to-Male Sexual Contact 778 3,467 68,518 50,518 329 110,850 3,823 238,339
    Injection Drug Use 166 241 30,561 18,992 19 10,700 1,054 61,745
    Male-to-Male Sexual Contact and Injection Drug Use 239 226 11,026 6,390 28 13,470 737 32,120
    Heterosexual Contact 99 471 26,875 9,853 29 5,434 633 43,401
    Perinatal 5 10 1,399 561 1 267 44 2,288
    Other 12 59 531 337 3 1,293 37 2,272
    Subtotal 1,299 4,474 138,909 86,652 409 142,015 6,328 380,164
      Female Adult or Adolescent
    Injection Drug use 137 94 18,968 6,949 17 7,487 825 34,481
    Heterosexual Contact 242 742 49,423 16,292 65 12,049 1,467 80,289
    Perinatal 8 7 1,490 568 3 275 50 2,402
    Other> 9 61 611 230 3 431 19 1,365
    Subtotal 396 904 70,492 24,038 88 20,242 2,362 118,538
      Child (<13 Years at End of Year)
    Perinatal 1 5 295 84 2 47 10 444
    Other 1 1 11 3 0 2 0 18
    Subtotal 2 6 306 87 2 49 10 463
    Total 1,697 5,384 209,707 110,778 499 162,308 8,700 499,167
    Source: 
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011, "Rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents, by area of residence, 2011—United States and 6 dependent areas"; Vol. 23, Table 18b, pp. 66-67. Published February 2013. Accessed May 21, 2013.
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_2011_HIV_Surveillance_Report_vol_2...

  3. (Rates of Diagnoses of Stage 3 HIV (AIDS), by Race/Ethnicity, 2011) "From 2008 through 2011, rates for Asians, Hispanics/Latinos, whites, and persons of multiple races decreased. The rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives, blacks/African Americans, and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders remained stable. In 2011, the rates were 41.6 for blacks/African Americans, 12.9 for persons of multiple races, 12.2 for Hispanics/ Latinos, 9.3 for Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders, 6.4 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, 4.2 for whites, and 3.3 for Asians. Data for Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders should be interpreted with caution because numbers are small."

    Source: 
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011, "Rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents, by area of residence, 2011—United States and 6 dependent areas"; Vol. 23, p. 7. Published February 2013. Accessed May 21, 2013.
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_2011_HIV_Surveillance_Report_vol_2...

  4. (Persons Living with HIV, by Race) According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), at year-end 2010 there were an estimated total of 891,857 persons living with an HIV diagnosis in the US states and 6 dependent territories. Of these, 3,195 were American Indian/Alaska Native, 9,746 were Asian, 383,712 were Black/African-American, 183,486 were Hispanic/Latino, 910 were Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, 295,545 were White, and 14,499 were multiple races.

    Source: 
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011, "Rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents, by area of residence, 2011—United States and 6 dependent areas"; Vol. 23, Table 17b, pp. 62-63. Published February 2013. Accessed May 21, 2013.
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_2011_HIV_Surveillance_Report_vol_2...

  5. Persons Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection, By Race/Ethnicity and Gender,
    Year-End 2010 - United States and 6 Dependent Areas
    American Indian/
    Alaska Native
    Asian Black/
    African-American
    Hispanic/
    Latino
    Native Hawaiian/
    Other Pacific Islander
    White Multiple
    Races
    Total
    Transmission Category
      Male Adult or Adolescent
    Male-to-Male Sexual Contact 1,518 6,468 134,816 88,279 605 205,239 6,766 444,092
    Injection Drug Use 259 355 45,812 27,459 31 16,449 1,425 91,868
    Male-to-Male Sexual Contact
    and Injection Drug Use
    382 329 16,815 9,263 46 21,696 1,080 49,672
    Heterosexual Contact 173 711 46,828 15,015 47 9,303 1,007 73,121
    Perinatal 8 20 2,329 1,007 1 519 70 3,955
    Other 12 74 835 454 3 1,729 51 3,164
    Subtotal 2,352 7,956 247,435 141,479 733 254,935 10,400 665,872
      Female Adult or Adolescent
    Injection Drug Use 266 154 30,065 10,560 33 13,388 1,214 55,735
    Heterosexual Contact 545 1,505 100,743 29,568 135 25,777 2,704 161,091
    Perinatal 14 16 2,601 1,007 3 540 84 4,268
    Other 11 72 910 329 4 586 30 1,947
    Subtotal 836 1,746 134,319 41,464 175 40,291 4,033 223,045
      Child (<13 Years at End of Year)
    Perinatal 6 33 1,711 494 2 268 60 2,574
    Other 1 11 246 49 0 49 6 362
    Subtotal 7 44 1,957 543 2 317 66 2,936
    Total 3,195 9,746 383,712 183,486 910 295,545 14,499 891,857
    Source: 
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011, "Rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents, by area of residence, 2011—United States and 6 dependent areas"; Vol. 23, Table 17b, pp. 62-63. Published February 2013. Accessed May 21, 2013.
    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_2011_HIV_Surveillance_Report_vol_2...

  6. (Leading Causes of Death Among African-Americans, 2008) According to the US Centers for Disease Control, among African-Americans in the US in 2008 HIV/AIDS was the tenth leading cause of death overall. It was the eight leading cause of death for African-Americans aged 16-19, the sixth leading cause for African-Americans aged 20-24, the fourth leading cause of death for African-Americans aged 25-34, the fourth leading cause of death for African-Americans aged 35-44, the fourth leading cause of death for African-Americans aged 45-54, and the eighth leading cause of death for African-Americans aged 55-64.

    Source: 
    Heron, Melonie P., PhD, "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2008," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 60, No. 6 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, June 6, 2012), p. 32, Table 1.
    http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_06.pdf

  7. (Leading Causes of Death Among Hispanics, 2008) According to the US Centers for Disease Control, among Hispanics in the US in 2008 HIV/AIDS was the eighth leading cause of death for Hispanics aged 20-24, the sixth leading cause of death among Hispanics aged 25-34, the seventh leading cause for Hispanics aged 35-44, and the seventh leading cause of death for Hispanics aged 45-54.

    Source: 
    Heron, Melonie P., PhD, "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2008," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 60, No. 6 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, June 6, 2012), p. 54-55, Table 2.
    http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_06.pdf

  8. (Leading Causes of Death for Non-Hispanic Whites, 2008) According to the US Centers for Disease Control, among non-Hispanic Whites in the US in 2008 HIV/AIDS was the ninth leading cause of death for Non-Hispanic Whites aged 35-44.

    Source: 
    Heron, Melonie P., PhD, "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2008," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 60, No. 6 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, June 6, 2012), pp. 61-62, Table 2.
    http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_06.pdf

  9. (New HIV Infections Among Youths, by Transmission Method) "In 2010, of the estimated 47,500 new HIV infections, 12,200 (25.7%) were among youths (10,100 [82.8%] among males and 2,100 [17.2%] among females). An estimated 7,000 (57.4%) newly infected youths were blacks/African Americans (5,600 males and 1,400 females), 2,390 (19.6%) were Hispanics/Latinos (2,100 males and 290 females), and 2,380 (19.5%) were whites (2,100 males and 280 females) (Figure 2). By transmission category, 72.1% of all new HIV infections among youths were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 19.8% to heterosexual contact,†† 4.0% to injection drug use, and 3.7% to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use. Among females, 85.7% of infections were attributed to heterosexual contact and 12.9% to injection drug use. Among males, 87.1% of infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 6.0% to heterosexual contact, 2.2% to injection drug use, and 4.5% to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use. Of the 8,800 new infections among youths attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 4,800 (54.4%) were among blacks/African Americans, 1,900 (21.6%) among Hispanics/Latinos, and 1,800 (20.5%) among whites."

    Source: 
    Centers for Disease Control, "Vital Signs: HIV Infection, Testing, and Risk Behaviors Among Youths - United States," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 61, No. 47 (Atlanta, GA: CDC, Nov. 30, 2012), p. 972.
    http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6147a5.htm?s_cid=mm6147a5_w

  10. (HIV Rates in State and Federal Prisons 2004, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age) "Of inmates who reported being tested since admission and reported a result, 1.9% in State prison and 1.1% in Federal prison reported being HIV positive (table 9).
    "Among State prisoners who were tested for HIV, female inmates (1.9%) were more likely than male inmates (1.6%) to be HIV positive (table 10). Black non-Hispanic inmates (2.0%) and Hispanic inmates (1.8%) were about twice as likely as white non-Hispanic inmates (1.0%) to report being HIV positive. Among male inmates, 1.9% of black non-Hispanics, 1.8% of Hispanic, and 1.1% of white non-Hispanics said they were HIV positive. Among female inmates, black non-Hispanics (3.4%) and Hispanics (2.7%) were about 6 times as likely as white non-hispanic inmates (.5%) to be HIV positive.
    "In Federal prisons 1.0% of male inmates and 1.4% of female inmates reported HIV infection. HIV-positive rates were highest among black non-Hispanic female inmates (2.6%).
    In both State and Federal prisons, inmates age 34 or younger had the lowest rates of HIV infection. The highest HIV-positive rates in State prisons were among those age 45 or older and in Federal prisons among those age 35-44 (1.9%)."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M., "HIV in Prisons, 2004" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), NCJ213897, p. 9.
    http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=954
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp04.pdf

  11. AIDS-Related Deaths Among State Prison Inmates 2008-2010
    Number of AIDS-Related Deaths
    Race/Hispanic 2008 2009 2010
    Non-Hispanic White 21 15 23
    Non-Hispanic African-American 57 70 43
    Hispanic 10 8 5
    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2001-2010," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics), NCJ 238877, Sept. 2012.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp10.pdf

  12. (HIV As Leading Cause of Death, By Race, 2003) The Centers for Disease Control reported that in 2003, HIV disease was the 22nd leading cause of death in the US for whites, the 9th leading cause of death for African-Americans, and the 13th leading cause of death for Hispanics.

    Source: 
    Heron, Melonie P., PhD, Smith, Betty L., BsED, Division of Vital Statistics, "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2003," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 55, No. 10 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, March 15, 2007), p. 10, Table E, and p. 12, Table F.
    http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr55/nvsr55_10.pdf

  13. (HIV/AIDS Among African-Americans, 2001)
    "• More than 165,000 African Americans were living with injection-related AIDS or had already died from it by the end of 2001. Many thousands more were infected with the HIV virus.
    "• The HIV/AIDS epidemic has fallen much more harshly upon African Americans than on whites who inject drugs. Among those who inject drugs, African Americans are five times as likely as whites to get AIDS.
    "• 2000, with all the advances in AIDS treatment, AIDS was still among the top three leading causes of death for African Americans aged 25-54 years. More than half of those deaths were caused by contaminated needles."

    Source: 
    Dawn Day, Ph.D., Health Emergency 2003: The Spread of Drug-Related AIDS and Hepatitis C Among African Americans and Latinos (The Dogwood Center: Princeton, NJ, 2002), p. i.

  14. (HIV/AIDS Among Latinos, 2001)
    "• More than 76,000 Latinos living in the United States and Puerto Rico had injection-related AIDS or had already died from it by the end of 2001. Thousands more were infected with the HIV virus.
    "• The HIV/AIDS epidemic has fallen more harshly upon Latinos than on whites who inject drugs. Among those who inject drugs, Latinos are at least one and a half times as likely as whites to get AIDS.
    "• In 2000, with all the advances in AIDS treatment, AIDS was still among the top five leading causes of death for Latinos aged 25-54. More than half of those deaths were caused by contaminated needles."

    Source: 
    Dawn Day, Ph.D., Health Emergency 2003: The Spread of Drug-Related AIDS and Hepatitis C Among African Americans and Latinos (The Dogwood Center: Princeton, NJ, 2002), p. i.

  15. (HIV in Jails) "Among jail inmates in 2002 who had ever been tested for HIV, Hispanics (2.9%) were more than 3 times as likely as whites (0.8%) and twice as likely as blacks (1.2%) to report being HIV positive."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 1.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj02.pdf

  16. (AIDS Deaths in Local Jails) "In 2002 the number of AIDS-related deaths in local jails was 42, down from 58 in 2000 (table 11). The rate of AIDS-related deaths was down from 9 per 100,000 inmates in 2000 to 6 per 100,000 in 2002. Of the 42 inmates who died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2002, 38 were male and 4 were female. Those who died from AIDS-related illnesses were most likely black (31 inmate deaths) and between the ages 35 and 44 (21 inmate deaths). Over the 3-year period beginning in 2000, a total of 155 local jail inmates died from AIDS-related causes."

    Source: 
    Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 10.
    http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj02.pdf