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International - Portugal Data and Policies

  1. Basic Data

    Prevalence and Trends

    (Prevalence of Drug Use in Portugal 2007) "In the Strategic cycle initiated in 2005, were carried out several national epidemiological studies that allowed trend analysis and comparability of the national situation at the European and international context, namely in the general population (2007 and 2012, results not yet available for 2012), in prison population (2007), in school populations (2006, 2007, 2010 and 2011) and in the driving population (2008-2009).
    "In the study conducted in 2007 in the Portuguese General Population (15-64), cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy were the illicit substances preferably used by the Portuguese with lifetime prevalence (at least one use experience) of 11,7% for cannabis, 1,9% for cocaine and 1,3% for ecstasy). Between 2001 and 2007, despite the increase in lifetime prevalence’s (of any illicit drug from 8% to 12%) it was verified a stability in the prevalence of use of any drug in the last month (2,5% in 2001 and 2007) and a decrease in continuity rates of use (of any drug passed from 44% to 31%). In 2007, Portugal was among the European the countries the one with the lowest prevalence of drug use with the exception of heroin."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 22.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  2. (Lifetime Prevalence of Drug Use) "In 2007, alcohol and tobacco were the most widespread psychoactive substances used by the Portuguese population aged from 15 to 64. The most widespread illicit trade drugs were cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy (the prevalence’s of use at least once in lifetime were 11,7% for cannabis, 1,9% for cocaine and 1,3% for ecstasy). Use of other illicit drugs was less common, apart from heroin, which prevalence of use at least once in lifetime was 1,1%."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 23.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  3. (Lifetime, Past-Year, and Past-Month Prevalence of Use of Selected Substances in Portugal, 2001 and 2007)

    Prevalence of Use Among Those Aged 15-64 in Portugal, 2001 and 2007 (Figures in Percent)
    Drug Lifetime Past Year Past Month
    2001 2007 2001 2007 2001 2007
    Alcohol 75.6 79.1 65.9 70.6 59.1 59.6
    Tobacco 40.2 48.9 28.8 30.9 28.6 29.4
    Tranquilizers of Sedatives 22.5 19.1 14.4 12.0 11.0 9.9
    Any Illicit Drug 7.8 12.0 3.4 3.7 2.5 2.5
    Cannabis 7.6 11.7 3.3 3.6 2.4 2.4
    Cocaine 0.9 1.9 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.3
    Amphetamines 0.5 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
    Ecstasy 0.7 1.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2
    Heroin 0.7 1.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2
    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), Table 1, pp 23-24.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  4. (Prevalence of Drug Use Among Youth in Portugal, 2011) "In 2011, the ESPAD [European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs], ECTAD [Esudo Sobre o Consumo de Alcool, Tabacoe Droga] and INME [Inquerito Nacional em Meio Escolar] results reinforced this increasing trend of prevalence use, between 2007 and 2011 in the first two and between 2006 and 2011 in the last one.
    "In ESPAD 2011 once more cannabis was the drug that presented the higher lifetime prevalence of use (16%) a value closer to lifetime prevalence of any drug (19%). Between 2007 and 2001 increased the lifetime prevalence of use of any drug (from 14% to 19%), decreases were verified in the prevalence of use of all drugs with the exception of heroin. The cannabis prevalence of use in last 30 days also increased between 2007 and 2001 (from 6% to 9%). In 2011, Portugal registered prevalence’s of use very similar to the European average, being in some cases superior (namely the prevalence of use of cannabis in last 30 days – 7% European average and 9% in Portugal, and lifetime use of other drugs than cannabis – 6% European average and 8% in Portugal) contrarily to what occurred in 2007, where they were overall inferior (lower).
    "In ECTAD 2011, lifetime prevalence of use of any drug varied between 4,4% (13 years old) and 31,2% (18 years old). Once more cannabis stood out with higher lifetime prevalence in all ages (between 2,3% in 13 years old and 29,7% in 18 years old), followed by cocaine in the younger ones and amphetamines in the olders ( from 16 years old inclusively). Lifetime prevalence of any drug and cannabis varied in direct ratio of the ages, the same didn’t happen with the other drugs than cannabis due to the higher prevalences in 15 or 16 years depending on the drugs. The last 30 days prevalence of cannabis use ranged between 0,7% (13 years) and 15,7% (18 years). Between 2001 and 2007 after the downward between 2003 and 20078, was registered an increase in lifetime prevalence of any drug at all ages. It is however noted that the prevalence of use of any drug mainly reflect the use of cannabis and that at the level of other substances not always occurred this evolution pattern in all ages, such as the lifetime prevalence decrease of heroin, cocaine and ecstasy among 17 and 18 years old students.
    "In INME 2011, lifetime prevalence of any drug was 10,3% in the 3rd Cycle and 29,4% in the Secondary. Cannabis once more stood out with the higher lifetime prevalences in the 3rd cycle (8,6%) and in the Secondary (28,2%). Followed by cocaine and ecstasy in the 3rd Cycle (1,9%) and amphetamines (2,9%) and LSD (2,3%) in Secondary. The lifetime prevalence of other drugs than cannabis were 3,9% in 3rd Cycle and 5,5% in the Secondary. In last year and last 30 days the prevalences of use of any drug were respectively of 8,7% and 6,2% in 3rd Cycle and 24,4% and 16,4% in Secondary, maintaining the pattern of use referred above (except in last 30 days prevalence in Secondary, where ecstasy was equal to amphetamines and higher than LSD). Between 2006 and 2011, in the 3rd cycle was found an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use and stability and even decreases in most drugs. In the Secondary an increasing trend in most drugs, apart from cannabis the increase of prevalence of use of amphetamines and LSD. Despite these increases in relation to 2006, the majority of prevalence use remained lower than the ones registered in 2001, in the 3rd cycle (with the exception of last 30 days prevalence of cannabis use) and in Secondary (with the exception of cannabis prevalence in any of the periods considered and the prevalence of use of most drugs in the last 30 days). The regional analysis by NUTS II showed that in the 3rd cycle and Secondary the regions of Algarve, Alentejo and Lisbon and Tagus Valley presented prevalence of any drug use superior to national average."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 28-29.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  5. (Age of Initiation of Drug Use in Portugal) "In 2007, the average age of initiation in drug use varied substantially depending on the type of drug. In general terms, use of licit drugs began at a younger age: as was the case for tobacco and alcoholic drinks (17 years). Cannabis (18) was the illicit drug for which initiation of use at an earlier age was observed.
    "The reverse was true for sedatives, for which use began later in life (34). In general terms use of other drugs was initiated between the ages of 20 and 22.
    "Comparing with the results of 2001, the average age of initiation is the same for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and heroin, and increased a year or two for the remaining substances."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 24.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  6. (Perceptions of Risk from Drug Use Among Youth In Portugal) "ESPAD results of 2003, 2007 and 2011 related to perceptions of regular drugs use, showed an increase perception of risk of regular drug use in the current strategic cycle. With regard to cannabis, the drug with higher prevalence of use, respectively 79%, 82% and 71% of students in 2011, 2007 and 2003 referred to be of high risk its regular use. In the case of ecstasy these percentages were 78%, 74% and 72% and in the case of amphetamines of 78%, 74% and 64%, respectively in 2011, 2007 and 2003. Compared to the European averages, Portuguese students perceived as higher risk the regular use of several drugs (in 2011, the European averages of attribution of higher risk to the regular use of cannabis, ecstasy and amphetamines, were respectively of 72%, 73% and 73%)."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 30-31.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  7. (Perceptions and Lifetime Prevalence by Gender and Age In Portugal) "Gender differences concerning illegal drugs experimentation were found for all substances. A higher proportion of males than females had used these substances at least once (18.4 % vs 5.2 % for cannabis, 1.8 % vs 0.4 % for heroin and 3.2 % vs 0.7 % for cocaine).
    "The use of illicit drugs is more frequent among the youngest (15-34 years old), especially in the age group 25-34 years.
    "Gender analysis shows lifetime prevalence and last month use higher in men for all drugs. The preferential pattern of use of the Portuguese population - first cannabis followed by cocaine and ecstasy maintained in both genders in general and young adult population. The pattern evolution between 2001 and 2007 remained in both genders, among the exceptions a decrease in the prevalence of heroin lifetime use in women in young adult population and the decrease of cannabis prevalence and stabilisation of cocaine use in last month in women of both populations.
    "A significant proportion of the population perceives a relatively low risk attached to these types of behaviour: take five or more drinks on the weekend; smoke one or more pack of cigarettes per day; and smoke hashish/marijuana regularly.
    "In 2001, the Portuguese population perceived the access to substances in a 24-hour period as more difficult than in 2007.
    "Finally and comparatively with studies results from other European countries, we can state that, even being the national results the most recent European results, Portugal remains among the countries with the lowest prevalence of use for most of the substances, with the exception of heroin, where Portugal shows higher prevalence’s."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 26.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  8. (Lifetime Prevalence of Use in Portugal Compared with Other EU Nations) "For the period 2001–2005, Portugal—for the 15–64 age group—has the absolute lowest lifetime prevalence rate for cannabis, the most used drug in the EU. Indeed, the majority of EU states have rates that are double and triple the rate for postdecriminalization Portugal (see Figures 15 and 16).68
    "Similarly, for usage rates of cocaine (the second-most commonly used drug in Europe) for the same period and the same age group, only five countries had a lower prevalence rate than the Portuguese rate. Most EU states have double, triple, quadruple, or even higher rates than Portugal’s, including some with the harshest criminalization schemes in the EU."

    Source: 
    Greenwald, Glenn, "Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies, Cato White Paper," CATO Institute (Washington, DC: 2009), p. 22.
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/13784156/Drug-Decriminalization-in-Portugal-Le...

  9. (Youth Alcohol Use in Portugal Compared to Other Nations) "In all ESPAD countries but one, 70% or more of the students have drunk alcohol at least once during their lifetime. The ESPAD average is 87% (range: 56–98%). The highest rates of lifetime alcohol prevalence (above 95%) are found in the Czech Republic and Latvia. There is one ESPAD country that stands out with a low figure, namely Iceland, but the proportion is actually the same (56%) in the United States (not an ESPAD country). Other countries with relatively low rates (below 80%) include Montenegro, Norway, Portugal, Romania and Sweden."

    Source: 
    Björn Hibell, et al., "The 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries" (Stockholm, Sweden: The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs (CAN), The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), and the Council of Europe, Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (Pompidou Group), May 2012), p. 68.
    http://www.espad.org/Uploads/ESPAD_reports/2011/The_2011_ESPAD_Report_FU...

  10. Crime, Courts, and Prisons

    (Drug Offense Numbers and Trends in Portugal 2011) "In 2011, concerning the administrative sanctions for drug use44, Commissions for the Dissuasion of Drug Use (CDT) instated 6 898 processes45, representing a slight decrease (-6%) in comparison to last year, most of which were, again, referred by the Public Security Police (PSP), National Republican Guard (GNR) and Courts.
    "From the 5 033 rulings made, 81% suspended the process temporarily, 15% were punitive rulings and 4% found the presumed offender innocent.
    "The number of presumed offenders was very similar to last year, registering these last three years the highest values since 2002. Continues the trend manifested through the decade of the predominance of presumed offenders in the possession of cannabis and the increased visibility of the number of presumed offenders in the possession of cocaine (the values registered in the last three years for cannabis and cocaine were the highest since 2002). In the case of heroin, after the downward trend verified in the first half of the decade, followed by a stability and a peak in 2009, it’s verified again a decrease in the number of presumed offenders.
    "In the context of judicial decisions under the Drug Law, in 2011, 1 629 crime processes were finalised involving 2 318 individuals, 2 041 were convicted, 78% for traffic, 21% for use and less than 1% for traffic-use, being noted the increase in the proportion of individuals convicted by use since 2008, related with the fixation of case law on situations for own use in superior amount than the required for the average individual use during a period of 10 days."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 100.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  11. (Criminal Offenses in Portugal 2011, by Type of Drug) "Concerning the substances involved:
    "• In relation to 2010, only the processes related with ecstasy registered an increase (+167%), although the number is still residual. The number of processes involving only cannabis and only cocaine remained stable and there were decreases in the number of heroin only (-36%) and with several drugs (-15%).
    "• As in previous years, most cases involved only one drug (93%):
    "• Mainly cannabis (76%) – 71% in 2010, 76% in 2009, 68% in 2008 and 64% in 2007
    "• 9% of these processes involved only heroin (14% in 2010, 11% in 2009, 14% in 2008 and 17% in 2007). 7% involved only cocaine (7%, 8%, 6% and 8%, respectively in 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007);
    "• The predominance of occurrences involving only cannabis was found in all CDTs [Commissions for the Dissuasion of Drug Use],
    "a) For the 7% processes involving more than one drug (7% in 2010, 6% in 2009, 10% in 2008 and 2007), the association heroin-cocaine was again predominant, and like in the last seven years, the association cocaine-cannabis surpassed the association heroin-cannabis."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 103.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  12. (Drug Offender Convictions and Sentencing in Portugal 2011) "Of the 2 041 convicted individuals (1,770 in 2010, 1,684 in 2009, 1,392 in 2008 and 1,420 in 2007), 78% were convicted for traffic, 21% for use and 1% for traffic-use, the focus goes to the increase in the proportion of individuals convicted by use since 2008, related with the fixation of case law on situations for own use in superior amount than the required for the average individual use during a period of 10 days53.
    "From the 1,600 individuals convicted for traffic, 1,594 were initially accused for that crime, 2 for use and 4 for traffic-use. From the 431 individuals convicted for use, 66% were accused for that crime, 34% for traffic and less than 1% for traffic-use. The vast majority (90%) of the convicted by traffic-use were accused for traffic and only 10% for traffic-use.
    "Once more Lisbon (39%) and Porto (21%) were the districts that registered the higher percentages of these convictions, followed by Setúbal (7%) and Faro (5%). The higher rates per habitant 15-64 years old; were registered in the district of Lisbon, Autonomous Region of Madeira and in the districts of Portalegre, Faro and Porto.
    "Concerning the sanctions54 applied in these convictions, mostly related with trafficking crimes, such as occurred in 2004 and contrary to previous years, these convictions involved mainly suspended prison (46%) instead of effective prison (32%). To refer specially in the last three years, the increase of convicted only sentenced with an effective fine, predominantly applied to convictions related with consumption."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 108-109.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  13. (Drug Offenses Post-Decriminalization) "Decriminalization seems to have taken some pressure off of the Portuguese criminal justice system. In 2000, approximately 14,000 people were arrested for drug-related crimes in Portugal.151 This number dropped to an average of 5,000 to 5,500 people per year after decriminalization.152 The number of people that the police have cited for administrative drug use offenses has also remained constant at about 6,000 per year.153 Therefore, there has not been a great surge in contact between drug offenders and the Portuguese police after decriminalization.154"

    Source: 
    Woods, Jordan Blair, "A Decade after Drug Decriminalization: What can the United States learn from the Portugese Model?" University of the District of Columbia Law Review (Washington, DC: The University of the District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law, 2011) Volume 15, Number 1, p. 23.
    http://www.udclawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/UDC-DACSL-L.-Rev-...

  14. Problem Drug Use

    (Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users in Portugal) "Results from national estimations on problematic drug use in Portugal indicate that there are between 6.2 and 7.4 problematic drug users for each 1,000 inhabitants aged 15-64 years, and between 1.5 and 3.0 for injecting drug users.
    "Between 2000 and 2005, the estimate number of problematic drug users in Portugal has shown a clear decline, with special relevance for injecting drug users."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 67.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  15. (Trends in HIV/AIDS and Injection Drug Use in Portugal) "Taking only 2011, from the notified cases of HIV diagnosed at 31/12/2011, the cases associated to drug addiction represented 10% of the total diagnosed cases in the different stadiums of the infection: 17% of the AIDS cases, 8% Symptomatic Non-AIDS and 6% of the asymptomatic carriers cases.
    "There has been a downward trend in last years on the weight of drug addicts, in the total number of cases diagnosed each year with HIV infection (10%, 14%, 15%, 20% and 22%, of the cases diagnosed in 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007), as in the cases diagnosed each year with AIDS (17%, 25%, 25%, 28% and 31% of the cases diagnosed in 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007). In addition to the decreasing trend of these proportions, it is worth of notice the continuous decrease over the past few years in the number of new cases diagnosed with HIV associated with drug addiction, safeguarding the future update of data (95 cases diagnosed in 2011, 254 in 2009, 423 in 2007 and 636 in 2005)."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 74-75.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  16. (Trends in HIV/AIDS Related to Injection Drug Use in Portugal) "According to 31/12/2011, notification data (analytical tests) from the National Health Institute Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA, I.P.), the decreasing trend concerning the percentage of drug users in the total number of notified HIV positive cases continues to be reported. From the 41,035 notifications received since 1983, near 39% (41% in 2010, 42% in 2009 and 2008, 44% in 2007 and 45% in 2006) were drug use related. Considering the different stages covered by these notifications, 45% of the AIDS cases, 33% of Symptomatic Non-AIDS cases and 35% of the asymptomatic carriers cases were drug use associated, consolidating the proportional downward trend in this group in the different stadiums of the infection."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 73.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  17. (Drug-Related Mortality in Portugal 2011) "According to the EMCDDA protocol in 2011 were registered 10 cases of drug-related deaths, representing the lowest value since 2006 and a decrease of 62% in relation to 2010.
    "In 2011, there is no specific information38, about the cause of death. However in 2009, last year with this information available - the predominant causes of these deaths were disorders (63%): multiple dependence or other (code F19.2 ICD10) cause that include polydrugs use. For the same reasons it’s not possible to provide the information by gender (in 2010 all the cases were from the male gender and in 2009 male gender predominated with percentages above 84%) in relation to age the only information available is for the age group above 49 (ith [sic] 40% according the EMCDDA).
    "Concerning the information on specific mortality registries related with drug use from the INML, I.P., it is important to contextualize within some indicators related to the activity of this Institute.
    "In 2011, despite the number of autopsies performed by INML, I.P. (7,673) increased in relation to last year (+16%), the number of requests for post-mortem toxicological exams (illicit substances) (3,089), decrease slightly (-3%), however representing the second highest value of the decade and an increase of 42% in relation to 2005. The number of cases with positive toxicological results (216) decreased (-27) in relation to 2010, decreasing the percentage of positivity in the set of exams made (7%, 9%, 9%, 11%, 12%, 9% and 10% respectively in 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006 and 2005)."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 79.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  18. (Disease and Mortality Trends in Portugal Since Decriminalization) "In 1999, a few years prior to decriminalization, Portugal had the highest number of drug-related AIDS cases in the European Union and the second highest prevalence of HIV among drug-infected users.127 The number of drug-related AIDS cases was also increasing, even though the number was decreasing in neighboring France, Spain, and Italy.128 Research suggests that drug-related disease has declined in Portugal after decriminalization. Incidences of HIV and AIDS among drug users declined substantially.129 The number of tracked cases of Hepatitis C and B in treatment centers also declined, despite the fact that many more drug users sought treatment after decriminalization took effect.130
    "Drug-related mortality in Portugal has also declined since decriminalization. During the 1990s, the number of drug-related deaths multiplied tenfold.131 Between 1999 and 2003, however, there was a significant drop in drug-related deaths within the country.132 Drug policy experts credit this decline to the increasing number of heroin users who entered substitution treatment programs after decriminalization.133"

    Source: 
    Woods, Jordan Blair, "A Decade after Drug Decriminalization: What can the United States learn from the Portugese Model?" University of the District of Columbia Law Review (Washington, DC: The University of the District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law, 2011) Volume 15, Number 1, pp. 20-21.
    http://www.udclawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/UDC-DACSL-L.-Rev-...

  19. (Decrease in Drug-Related Deaths in Portugal Post-Decriminalization) "In absolute numbers, drug-related deaths from 2002 to 2006 for every prohibited substance have either declined significantly or remained constant compared with 2001. In 2000, for instance, the number of deaths from opiates (including heroin) was 281. That number has decreased steadily since decriminalization, to 133 in 2006 (see Figure 11).56
    "As is true for drug usage rates, these postdecriminalization decreases were preceded by significant increases in drug-related problems in Portugal throughout the 1990s. Throughout the predecriminalization 1990s, the number of acute drug-related deaths increased every year, increasing more than tenfold from 1989 to 1999, reaching a total of almost 400 by 1999 (see Figures 12 and 13).57
    "The total number of drug-related deaths has actually decreased from the predecriminalization year of 1999 (when it totaled close to 400) to 2006 (when the total was 290)."

    Source: 
    Greenwald, Glenn, "Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies, Cato White Paper," CATO Institute (Washington, DC: 2009), p. 17.
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/13784156/Drug-Decriminalization-in-Portugal-Le...

  20. (Drug Use Trends in Portugal Since Decriminalization) "Contrary to critics’ expectations, available research does not indicate that drug use has skyrocketed in Portugal since decriminalization. Drug use seems to have increased within certain subgroups, and declined within other subgroups. Between 2001 and 2007, lifetime and past-year drug usage slightly increased among Portuguese adults for almost all illicit substances. Conversely, lifetime usage rates slightly declined for teenagers.120 These trends are consistent with drug use trends in Italy and Spain.121 Therefore, changes in drug use in Portugal may reflect regional trends, not changes due to decriminalization.122
    "Existing research suggests that there is one significant trend that may be attributed to decriminalization in Portugal. Since Portugal decriminalized drug use in 2001, the prevalence of problematic drug use (“PDU”),123 especially intravenous drug use, has declined.124 This trend is inconsistent with trends in Italy and Spain, where PDU has increased.125 This dissimilarity suggests that decriminalization may have reduced the most harmful forms of drug use in Portugal.126"

    Source: 
    Woods, Jordan Blair, "A Decade after Drug Decriminalization: What can the United States learn from the Portugese Model?" University of the District of Columbia Law Review (Washington, DC: The University of the District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law, 2011) Volume 15, Number 1, pp. 19-20.
    http://www.udclawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/UDC-DACSL-L.-Rev-...

  21. Treatment

    (Treatment Availability and Number of Clients) "In 2010, 47 outpatient treatment centres were working in mainland Portugal as well as 32 decentralised consultation units. These centres provide both drug free and medically assisted treatment.
    "Inpatient units are usually a second step of the process, as most clients of detoxification units and therapeutic communities are referred to those units by their therapists. In detoxification units, medically assisted withdrawal treatment is available, whereas in therapeutic communities most, though all, available programs are drug free (in some cases patients can enter with agonist medication and stop it in the therapeutic community). Inpatient drug free treatment is mainly available in public and private therapeutic communities.
    "In 2010, there were 69 therapeutic communities (3 public and 66 private units) in mainland Portugal. The number of clients in therapeutic communities increase 6% in comparison to last year (3 601 in 2009, 3 385 in 2008 and 3 167 in 2007), consolidating the grown of last years.
    "In 2010 there were 13 Detoxification Units (4 public and 9 private units). The number of clients (2 446) in detoxification units decrease 9% in comparison to last year (2 676)."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., 2011 National Report (2010 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point, “PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2011), p. 60.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191617_EN_Portugal_2011...

  22. (Characteristics of Treatment Clients in Portugal 2011) "2011 national first treatment demand data concerned 5,960 individuals from the outpatient public network centres (78) from these population only 2,265 are Drug Users, this year for the second time it was possible to have TDI data fully in line with EMCDDA TDI Protocol (see also Standard Table 34).
    "These individuals (2 265) in first treatment demand were mainly:
    "• Male gender (84%);
    "• Mean Age 33, 31.4% were aged 25-34, 29% were aged 35-44, 24.5% were aged under 25.
    "• Using heroin as the main substance (52.3%, 54% in 2010, 47.5% in 2009, 51.1% in 2008 and 59.5% in 2007), followed by cannabis (25.3%, 21% in 2010, 11.7% in 2009, 10.5% in 2008 and 10.9% in 2007);
    "• cocaine (12.5%, 12% in 2010, 8.7% in 2009, 10.8% in 2008 and 11,6% in 2007);
    "• Data concerning the administration route of the main substance indicate that (73.4%, 93% in 2010, 64.3% in 2009, 63.1% in 2008 and 74.3% in 2007) of these clients refer smoking/inhaling and 7.2% referred injecting (7% in 2010, 12.5% in 2009, 21.5% in 2008, 19.0% in 2007, 21.9% in 2006);
    "In 2011, were integrated in the drug addiction treatment public network 26,351 clients in substitution and maintenance programs, representing a decrease of 4% in relation to 2010 (27,392 in 2010, 27,031 in 2009, 25,808 in 2008 and 24,312 in 2007), after the continuous increase verified through the last decade."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 70.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  23. (Opioid Substitution Therapy in Portugal 2011) "A survey made each year on the 31st of December 2011 allows differentiation in terms of substances involved in this type of treatment.
    "On that date, 21,236 clients were registered in the outpatient public treatment network substitution programs, representing a decrease in relation to 2010.
    "From those 78% (77% in 2010, 76% in 2009, 75% in 2008 and 74% in 2007) were registered in methadone programs and 22% (23% in 2010, 24% in 2009, 25% in 2008 and 26% in 2007) in buprenorphine programs.
    "In comparison with the situation on the 31st of December 2010, methadone clients increased (+2%) and buprenorphine decrease (-3%) consolidating the inversion occurred in 2006 of the upward trend of clients in buprenorphine verified in previous years.
    "Concerning the place of administration for the clients registered in methadone programs, on the 31st of December 2011:
    "• 66% (67% in 2010, 69% in 2009 and 2008 and 70% in 2007) of these clients took their methadone in the ET;
    "• 16%21 (16% in 2010, 17% in 2009 and 2008 and 18% in 2007) in health centres;
    "• 3% (4% in 2010, 3% in 2009, 2008 and 2007) in pharmacies;
    "• 3% in Hospitals (2% as in 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007);
    "• 7% (5% as in 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007) in other settings22.
    "In all Regions, ETs were the main place of administration, followed by the health centres (primary health care centres).
    "The methadone therapeutic programs through pharmacies are the result of a protocol between IDT, I.P., National Association of Pharmacies (ANF), National Institute of Pharmacy and Medicines (INFARMED) and Pharmaceutical Order.
    "Since the beginning of the program (July 1998) until 31 December 2011, integrated this project 506 pharmacies, 792 pharmaceutics and 2,913 clients."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 71-72.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  24. Harm Reduction

    (Syringe Exchange Activity in Portugal 2011) "Prevention of drug-related infectious diseases amongst problematic drug users is mainly ensured through the national syringe exchange program 'Say no to a second hand syringe', established by the National Commission for the Fight Against AIDS (CNLCS) in collaboration with the National Association of Pharmacies (ANF), with the aim to prevent HIV transmission between intravenous drug users through the distribution of sterilized material and the collection and destruction of the materials used by IDUs.
    "Over the years the program was adjusted according to the evolution needs of IDUs and harmonization of procedures among the various partners.
    "Since it was set up, in October 1993, it has been using the national network of pharmacies and has enlarged its partner network through protocols with mobile units, NGOs and other organisations in order to reach a wider population (49 partners in 2010 and 2009 and 36 in 2008). This program was externally evaluated (as reported in previous National Reports) and it was concluded that it had avoided 7 000 new HIV infections per each 10 000 IDU at that time of existence of this program, having estimate savings to the State between 400 to 1.700 million Euros, reinforcing the importance of this program in term of public health.
    "49.121.482 syringes have been exchanged through this program since October 1993 and until December of 2011 by all the entities involved in this program. In 2011, 1.650.951 syringes were exchanged representing a decrease of 20% in relation to previous year (2,057,497 syringes in 2010).
    "These syringes are included in a kit with 2 syringes, 2 ampoules of bi-distilled water, 2 acid citric packages, 2 condoms, 1 filter and 2 disinfecting towels and 1 informative leaflet. (For more information see Standard Table 10 - syringe availability).
    "Between October 1993 and December 2011 were distributed 49 121 482 syringes by all the entities involved in the National Syringe Exchange program. The number of syringes exchanged increased progressively till 1997, with some fluctuations in the following years. From 2005 has been registered a downward trend in the number of syringes exchanged.
    "In the year 2011 and in comparison to last year it was verifies an increase in the percentage collected and a decrease in the number of syringes distributed (-55%)."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 89.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  25. (Syringe Exchange Through Mobile Units and Pharmacies in Portugal 2011) "From the beginning of the program till know 3,817,192 syringes were exchanged by Mobile Units (in several places, such as Casal Ventoso, Curraleira, Cova da Moura, Bairro de Santa Filomena and Odivelas), 12.308.326 by partnerships and 32.995.964 by pharmacies.
    "In 2011, 1,267 pharmacies (1,336 in 2010, 1,360 in 2009, 1,384 in 2008 and 1,314 in 2007) were active in this program."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 89.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  26. (Effects of Decriminalization) "In the Portuguese case, the statistical indicators and key informant interviews that we have reviewed suggest that since decriminalization in July 2001, the following changes have occurred:
    "• small increases in reported illicit drug use amongst adults;
    "• reduced illicit drug use among problematic drug users and adolescents, at least since 2003;
    "• reduced burden of drug offenders on the criminal justice system;
    "• increased uptake of drug treatment;
    "• reduction in opiate-related deaths and infectious diseases;
    "• increases in the amounts of drugs seized by the authorities;
    "• reductions in the retail prices of drugs.
    "By comparing the trends in Portugal and neighbouring Spain and Italy, we can say that while some trends clearly reflect regional shifts (e.g. the increase in use amongst adults) and/or the expansion of services throughout Portugal, some effects do appear to be specific to Portugal. Indeed, the reduction in problematic drug users and reduction in burden of drug offenders on the criminal justice system were in direct contrast to those trends observed in neighbouring Spain and Italy. Moreover, there are no signs of mass expansion of the drug market in Portugal. This is in contrast with apparent market expansions in neighbouring Spain."

    Source: 
    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth and Stevens, Alex, "What can we learn from the Portugese decriminalization of drugs?" British Journal of Criminology (London, United Kingdom: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, November 2010), Vol. 50, Issue 6, p. 1017.
    http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/6/999.full.pdf
    http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/6/999.abstract

  27. Laws & Policies

    (Development of Portugal's Drug Strategy) "Despite increasing efforts by the government during the 1990s, the Portuguese drug situation continued to be problematic, especially in the areas of heroin addiction and HIV transmission. In 1998, the government appointed the Commission for the National Strategy to Fight against Drugs, with the mandate to produce a report with guidelines for the ‘fight against drugs and drug addiction’, namely on the topics of prevention, treatment, social reinsertion, training, research, risk reduction and supply control (Dias, 2007).
    "The Commission had nine members, including five recognised (legal or health) experts/researchers in the drugs area, two from the relevant public bodies in the Health and Justice Ministries, a representative of the office of the minister in charge of drugs policy (Assistant Minister of the Prime Minister) and an independent and internationally recognised researcher with no previous direct links to drug policy, who chaired the Commission.
    "The Commission made use of its broad mandate and delivered its report to Parliament the same year. The report included comprehensive recommendations for 12 different areas of drug policy (international cooperation, legal framework, prevention, treatment, harm reduction, prisons and drugs, rehabilitation, supply reduction and money laundering, research and training, civil society, coordination and financial resources). It also recommended the decriminalisation of personal drug use.
    "The Parliamentary Committee on Drugs unanimously approved the report and, one year later, the Council of Ministers formally approved its content, which became the 1999 National Strategy for the Fight Against Drugs (Portuguese Government, 1999). It remains the foundation of today’s drug policy in Portugal."

    Source: 
    "Drug Policy Profiles: Portugal," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011), doi 10.2810/41390, p. 15.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_137215_EN_PolicyProfile...

  28. (Changes in Portugal's Drugs Monitoring Agencies) "The current economic crisis that Europe is experiencing, with direct implications on our country, led to the adoption of measures of rationalization and containment of public expenditure, which resulted in the reduction of human and financial resources compromising the performance of the mission of IDT, I.P.
    "Also, on the second semester of 2011, the activity of IDT, I.P. was defined by the instability caused by the announcement of the governmental decision to extinguish the IDT, I.P.1, on the context of the PREMAC (Plano de Redução e Melhoria da Administração Central) and the creation of a new structure within the Ministry of Health, the SICAD – Directorate General for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies, in charge of planning and monitoring programs of reduction of use of psychoactive substances, prevention of addictive behaviours and reducing dependencies. The implementation of interventions will lie on the competence of the regional health administrations (ARS).
    "The mission of SICAD is to promote the reduction of use of psychoactive substances, the prevention of addictive behaviours and the reduction of dependencies.
    "SICAD has the following assignments:
    "a) Support the member of Government responsible for the elaboration of the national strategy and of policies for reducing the use of psychoactive substances, prevention of addictive behaviours and reduction of dependencies and their evaluation;
    "b) Plan and evaluate the programs of prevention, risk and harm reduction and treatment of psychoactive substances, addictive behaviours and dependencies, namely the definition of standards, methodologies and requirements to ensure quality;
    "c) Plan the intervention on addictive behaviours and dependencies, trough a network of primary care, centres of integrated responses and in patient or outpatient facilities, depending on the severity of the addiction or the use of psychoactive substances;
    "d) Develop and promote the scientific research on psychoactive substances, addictive behaviours and dependencies, maintaining an information system on drugs and addictions phenomenon;
    "e) Develop effective mechanisms for planning and coordinating the definition of policies for the interventions on addictive behaviours and dependencies;
    "f) Perform diagnosis of the needs for interventions at national level, define priorities and the type of intervention to develop;
    "g) Define the technical and normative guidelines for the intervention in addictive behaviours and dependencies;
    "h) Promote training in psychoactive substances, addictive behaviours and dependencies;
    "i) Ensure the collection, treatment and dissemination of data and information from public and private bodies with intervention in psychoactive substances, addictive behaviours and dependencies;
    "j) Ensure international representation in its field of expertise and specific assignments, without prejudice of the competences of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as ensuring the obligations as National Focal Point of the European Information Network on Drugs and Drug Addiction of European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction, coordinating with Directorate General of Health, as the body responsible for the international relations of the Ministry of Health;
    "k) Provide technical and administrative support and ensure the necessary structures for the functioning of the Commissions for Dissuasion;
    "l) Define the requirements for the licensing of private units providing health care in the field of dependencies and addictive behaviours.
    "The decision to extinguish IDT,I.P. coincided with the end of the cycle of the national policy on drugs and alcohol, initiated with the evaluation of the National Plan on Drugs and Drug Addiction 2005-2012 (PNCDT) and the National Plan for Reducing Alcohol Related Problems 2010-2012 (PNRPLA) – See chapter 1.3."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 16-17.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  29. (Law 30/2000 – Decriminalisation in Portugal)
    "The new law of 2000 maintained the status of illegality for using or possessing any drug for personal use without authorisation. However, the offence changed from a criminal one, with prison a possible punishment, to an administrative one. The procedure and mechanism for dealing with such offences also changed and is now dealt with under an administrative procedure. When a person is caught in possession of no more than 10 daily doses of drugs (their corresponding gram limits had already been established in a regulation), and the police have no suspicions or evidence that supply offences are involved, the drug will be seized. The case will then be transmitted to the Commission for the Dissuasion of Drug Abuse (CDT), of which there is one in each of Portugal’s 18 districts. The CDT is composed of three members appointed by the Ministries of Justice and Health (the member appointed by the Ministry of Justice has to be a legal expert, the other two usually being a health professional and a social worker), and is supported by a small team of practitioners who will have similar backgrounds to the members. These practitioners meet the offender and evaluate his/her situation and then, based on the case assessment, the CDT hears the offender and rules on the offence, aiming to treat any addiction and rehabilitate the person using the most appropriate interventions.
    "Several options are available to the CDT when ruling on the drug use offence, including warnings, banning from certain places, banning from meeting certain people, obligation of periodic visits to a defined place, removal of professional licence or firearms licence. Sanctioning by fine, which may vary by drug involved, is an available option (though not for addicts) but it is not the main objective in this phase. Users found in possession of more than 10 daily doses will be prosecuted in court for a criminal consumption offence.
    "The implementation of the decriminalisation framework showed that in 2009 the majority of CDT rulings (68%) were for provisional suspension of the process, for users who were not considered addicted. A further 15% were provisionally suspended with an agreement to undergo treatment. Some 14% were punitive rulings, comprising 4% fines and 10% non-pecuniary sanctions (mainly requiring periodic attendance in a place selected by the CDT). In total, 76% of these processes involved cannabis alone, 11% heroin, and 6% cocaine; the remaining 6% were polydrug users, predominantly combining heroin and cocaine."

    Source: 
    "Drug Policy Profiles: Portugal," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011), doi 10.2810/41390, pp. 16-17.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_137215_EN_PolicyProfile...

  30. (Portugal's National Drug Control Strategy) "This strategy specifies eight principles, which embody a set of values that should guide interventions in this area. ‘Humanism’, for example, is the recognition of the inalienable human dignity of citizens, including drug users, and translates into a commitment to offer a wide range of services to those in need and to adopt a legal framework that causes no harm to them. ‘Pragmatism’ calls for the adoption of solutions and interventions that are based on scientific knowledge, while ‘Participation’ calls for the involvement of the community in drug policy definition and implementation.
    "This strategy also puts forward a set of 13 strategic options to guide public action in the drugs field: reinforce international cooperation; decriminalise (but still prohibit) drug use; focus on primary prevention; assure access to treatment; extend harm reduction interventions; promote social reintegration; develop treatment and harm reduction in prisons; develop treatment as an alternative to prison; increase research and training; develop evaluation methodologies; simplify interdepartmental coordination; reinforce the fight against drug trafficking and money laundering; and double public investment in the drugs field.
    "These principles and strategic options, which are the foundations of the current drug policy in Portugal, were first implemented through the National Action Plan for the Fight Against Drugs and Drug Addiction — Horizon 2004 (IDT, I.P., 2001). The plan, adopted in 2001, introduced 30 primary objectives related to the increase and improvement of drug-related interventions and to the reduction of drug use, risk behaviours and drug-related harms. The Action Plan had also, for the first time, an associated budget, set according to national priorities and distributed by the entities in charge of its implementation. When the plan was conceived in 1999, drug-related public investment was expected to increase by 10 % every year between 1999 and 2004, reaching EUR 159 615 327 in its last year. An external evaluation carried out a few years later (see below) concluded, however, that it was not possible to assess whether the planned budgetary objectives were effectively attained."

    Source: 
    "Drug Policy Profiles: Portugal," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011), doi 10.2810/41390, pp. 15-16.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_137215_EN_PolicyProfile...

  31. (Portugal's Decriminalization Law and Commissions for the Dissuasion of Drug Use (CDTs)) "The decriminalisation of possession and use of drugs, Law 30/2000 of 29 of November, is an operational instrument of objectives and policies to combat the use and abuse of drugs, and the promotion of public health, complementary to the strategies of other areas of intervention of IDT, I.P. in the field of demand reduction, representing as well a measure against social exclusion.
    "The purpose of this legal change was the reduction of drug use and safeguard of the needs of individuals at preventive, health and therapeutic level. For this objective, Commissions for the Dissuasion of Drug Use (CDT) were created in each capital of district to develop a proximity work in the mediation between situations of use and the application of administrative sanctions (see chapter 9.2 for further developments).
    "The CDT’s continued to play in 2011 an important role in the articulation with the CRI’s in the context of the preventive responses. There were a significant number of referrals to structures with responses in risk reduction and harm reduction, as well as regular contacts and meetings with the treatment facilities in the various districts, in a relation of proximity and positive articulation.
    "In order to enhance the intra-ministerial articulation under the Health Ministry, regular referrals to structures within the Ministry, as health centers, hospitals and other integrated services were developed.
    "Regarding the promotion of inter-ministerial coordination and as in 2011 were extinguished the Civil Governments, it was necessary to find alternative solutions to the functioning of CDT’s which wouldn’t prejudice the defendant and patients
    "Under the same goal it should be noted the proximity work with the Public Ministry and Police Forces, maintaining also a regular joint working with partners in the field of social reintegration.
    "To achieve these referrals is necessary to assess and evaluate the connexion that the individual has with the illicit substance consumed. This means trying to meet the actual needs of each individual, allowing for early detection of problem drug use and identification of dysfunctional behaviours, which involve greater risks, including escalation of consumption."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), pp. 113-114.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  32. (US Perception of Portugal's Decriminalization) "Portugal focuses much of its counternarcotic efforts on treatment and prevention. Drug use remains stable and below the EU average, despite decriminalization of personal drug use in 2001. 'Problem' drug use and HIV cases are referred to the Drug Addiction Dissuasion Commission, consisting of multi-disciplinary teams that assess users and decide the appropriate sanction and referral to educational or treatment programs. The Portuguese Ministry of Health’s Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction (IDT) operates numerous dug treatment centers nationwide. The IDT also has prevention programs that include training sessions, awareness-raising activities, and dissemination of informational pamphlets. Universal drug prevention is part of the Portuguese school curriculum. In addition, in the 'Safe Schools' program, law enforcement patrols the areas surrounding schools to prevent and protect students from criminal activities such as drug trafficking in the surrounding area. Law enforcement also actively participates in awareness and training activities."

    Source: 
    "International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Volume I Drug and Chemical Control" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, March 2014), p. 278.
    http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/222881.pdf

  33. (Harm and Risk Reduction Model in Portugal) "The Harm and Risk Reduction model implemented in Portugal, aims to propose, through integrated work, to users who are unable or unwilling to renounce drug use, help to reduce harm they cause themselves trough alternatives paths that lead to treatment facilities and therefore a gradual process of stabilization and organization, which may allow the recovery process. Thus the focus is the National Network of Harm and Risk Reduction (RRMD) as an integrated intervention model, recommended by the Operational Program of Integrated Responses (PORI), via the implementation of projects under the Program of Integrated Response (PRIs).
    "The main priorities established by the National Plan 2005-2012 in the area of Harm and risk reduction are:
    "• To set up a global network of integrated and complementary responses in this area with public and private partners;
    "• To target specific groups for risk reduction and harm minimisation programs.
    "In 2011 the main objectives for the area of Harm and Risk reduction were:
    "• Ensure the systematic collection of information through proximity structures with the view to a better knowledge of the phenomenon, specially for the group of users/consumers of psychoactive substances which don’t seek the conventional treatment network;
    "• Consolidate the RRMD national Network through following and monitoring the work done and also invest in the training of the different intervinients;
    "• Integrate and complement the intervention in this area with the several responses available at the level of prevention, treatment and reintegration at intra and interinstitutional level."

    Source: 
    Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction, I.P., "2012 National Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: PORTUGAL: New Development, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues" (Lisbon, Portugal: 2012), p. 84.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index214059EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_214060_EN_Portugal_NR20...

  34. (Laws and Penalties for Trafficking Offenses) "Drug traffic is defined by chapter III art. 21 of the Decree Law 15/93: ‘traffic and other illicit activities’. Producing, offering, selling, preparing or cultivating illicit drugs are, among others, the classic offences constituting drug traffic. It must be mentioned that the same article expressly excludes drug use offences foreseen by article 40 of the same decree law.
    "Portuguese law differentiates prosecution of drug traffic according to several criteria. The nature of the substance is one of the main criteria. Trafficking in substances included in the lists I to III attract a sentence of between 4 and 12 years of imprisonment, while substances in list IV (tranquilliser and analgesic) may be punished by between 1 and 5 years in prison.
    "The state of addiction of the trafficker is also taken into account by art. 26 of Decree Law 15/93. If the user sells drugs to finance his own consumption (‘addict-trafficker’), the penalty is reduced: Lists I, II, III up to 3 years (instead of 4-12) - list IV up to 1 year (instead of 1-5).
    "The ‘traffic of minor importance’, being defined by article 25, is also considered at the prosecution. In cases in which the crime can be defined as minor, according to the circumstances, modalities of the crime, quantity and nature of the substances, the penalties will be substantially reduced; between 1 and 5 years’ imprisonment (lists I to III) and up to 2 years or fine (list IV).
    "Of course the law foresees also aggravating circumstances by which the minimum and maximum penalties for traffic can be increased by ¼ in all cases. Criminal association envisages 10-25 years. Traffic of precursors attract penalties up to 12 years of imprisonment and the abandonment of syringes is fined or punished by up to 1 year of imprisonment."

    Source: 
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Country Legal Profile: Portugal," last accessed Dec. 8, 2012.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index5174EN.html?pluginMethod=eldd....