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  1. Basic Data

    (Prevalence of Cannabis Use) "As shown in Figure 1, the proportion of young adults who reported ever having used cannabis increased from 22 per cent in 1998 to 30 per cent in 2002 and 34 percent in 2006. This was followed by a decline to 26 per cent in 2010. The increase in lifetime prevalence in the first half of the 2000s can to some extent be explained by the increase that was found among those aged 15–20 in the latter half of the 1990s, who were in the age group 21–30 in 2006.
    "As regards use during the last six months (Figure 2), there was an increase from seven per cent in 1998 to ten per cent in 2002 and 2006, while the corresponding proportion in 2010 had stabilised at nine per cent. There were far more men than women among young adults who reported ever having used cannabis. This applies to both those who reported ever having used cannabis and those who reported having used it during the last six months."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 18.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  2. (Prevalence of Past-Month Drug Use) "The findings on drug use are based on reported use during the last 30 days. Nationwide, 10 per cent had used heroin during the past month, 32 per cent had used cannabis and 40 per cent had used benzodiazepine substances. Fifteen per cent had used stimulants, primarily amphetamine. The situation was also measured by calculating the overall score for frequency of drug use and the severity of ongoing use during the past month. Forty per cent had not used such substances at all, and eighteen per cent only sporadically. All the findings are practically unchanged compared with recent years (SERAF, 2012)."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 31.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  3. (Prevalence of Other Drug Use) "From 1998 to 2006, there was an increase among those aged 21–30 who reported ever having used one or more of the substances amphetamine, cocaine or heroin, while there was a decline from 2006 to 2010 (Figure 4). The decline reflects the pattern for younger age groups. Use during the last six months also tended to decline towards the end of the 2000s."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 19.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  4. (Number of Criminal Drug Charges) "A total of 37,900 charges were brought for drug
    crimes in 2010. That is 21 per cent of all charges for infringements of the law and 41 per cent of all criminal charges. In total, almost 17,200 persons were charged with one or more drug infringements, 48 per cent of all charges for crimes. The corresponding figure in the 21–29 age group was 60 per cent.
    "A total of 12,200 persons charged had drug crime as their primary offence in 2010, almost 14 per cent fewer than in 2009 (Table 5). Persons charged with drug crime as their primary offence were more than a third of all persons charged with crimes. The proportion of women was generally low, 17 per cent in 2010."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 47.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  5. (Drug Crimes Compared With All Criminal Cases) "Drug crime was the primary offence in connection with almost 14,900 penal sanctions, slightly more than 44 per cent of all penal sanctions in criminal cases in 2010. The number of penal sanctions where drug crime was the primary offence increased by almost 16 per cent in relation to the year before, back at the level of the peak year of 2001 (Figure 8). The prosecuting authority decided more criminal cases than the courts. More than 10,200 cases where drug crime was the primary offence were settled by a fine without the case going to court."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 47.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  6. (Drug Offenders in Norwegian Prisons) "The average number of inmates in Norwegian prisons was 3,624 in 2010. This is an increase of seven per cent on the year before, and more than in any of the preceding 50 years. Almost 30 per cent of inmates at the start of 2010 had drug crime as their primary offence. By comparison, crimes against property accounted for 22 per cent and crimes of violence for 21 per cent.
    "There were 1,959 new imprisonments in Norwegian prisons in 2010 with drug crime as the primary offence. A total of 591 of the imprisonments were for aggravated drug crimes pursuant to the General Civil Penal Code section 162 second and third paragraphs. While the proportion of women was slightly more than 9 per cent for drug crimes in all, it was as high as 13 per cent for aggravated drug crimes."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 48.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  7. (Prevalence of Problem Opiate Use) "In 2011, around 10 per cent of OST [Opioid Substitution Treatment] patients report using morphine substances in addition to OST medication during the last 30 days, and 15 per cent have been found to use stimulants. This is a somewhat lower proportion than in 2010. The proportion who have used such drugs in the space of a whole year will be higher. In addition, some people move in and out of OST and may thus have periods of heroin use before, between or after treatment periods during the survey year (Waal et al. 2012)."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 27.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...


  8. Table 1: Ranges for the number of injecting drug users in Norway 2002-2010, calculated using the Mortality Multiplier*

    Year

    Lower limit - Upper limit
    2002 10,500-14,000
    2003 9,200-12,800
    2004 8,700-12,200
    2005 8,900-12,400
    2006 8,400-11,700
    2007 8,600-12,000
    2008 8,800-12,500
    2009 8800-12,500
    2010 8,300-11,800

    Source: SIRUS
    * Figures are rounded.

    "The figures include all injecting use. Heroin is still the most common drug injected, but, for more and more people, amphetamine is becoming the main drug injected. The proportion of injecting drug users in Oslo who had primarily injected amphetamine during the past month was approximately 20 per cent in 2002–2004. In 2008–2010, the corresponding figure was approximately 35 per cent (unpublished results from a study conducted among injecting drug users in Oslo, Bretteville-Jensen, SIRUS). It has also become more common to inject both heroin and amphetamine."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), Table 1, p. 27.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  9. (Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users) "In 2011, 269 cases of HIV infection were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Ten of the cases were among injecting drug users. The median age was 38 years (28 to 51 years). Five of the ten injecting drug users who were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2011 were persons of foreign origin who had been infected before arriving in Norway.
    "As of 31 December 2011, a total of 585 persons had been diagnosed as HIV positive with injecting use as a risk factor. This amounts to 12 per cent of all reported cases of HIV since 1984, but as little as five per cent of all reported cases since 2000. Development into AIDS has been reported in 153 of the cases (Table 2). No information is available regarding how many of the HIV-positive injecting drug users are still alive."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 32.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  10. (Incidence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users) "The incidence of HIV among injecting drug users has remained at a stable, low level for many years, with about 10 to 15 cases reported per year. The reason for this is not entirely clear, but a high level of testing, great openness regarding HIV status within the drug user community, combined with a strong fear of being infected and strong internal justice in the milieu, are assumed to be important factors. In addition, many of the sources of infection in the milieu have disappeared due to overdose deaths, and some have been rehabilitated through substitution therapy or other forms of rehabilitation. However, the extensive outbreaks of hepatitis A and B in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and the high incidence of hepatitis C, show that there is still extensive needle sharing in this group, although a large number of syringes are handed out every year in Norway."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 32.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  11. (Incidence of Hepatitis B Among Injection Drug Users) "In the period 1995–2008, a considerable increase in hepatitis B among drug users nationwide was reported to MSIS. In 2011, 18 of a total of 56 reported cases of acute hepatitis B involved injecting drug users. During the period 1995–2011, the total number of reported cases of acute hepatitis B infection among injecting drug users was 1,969. Hepatitis B vaccination has been offered to injecting drug users free of charge since the mid-1980s."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 33.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  12. (Incidence of Hepatitis C Among Injection Drug Users) "The monitoring of hepatitis C in Norway was intensified from 1 January 2008. The notification criteria were changed so that all laboratory-confirmed cases of hepatitis C must now be reported to MSIS [Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases]. Previously, only acute illness had to be reported, and this resulted in a very inadequate overview of the real incidence of the disease in the country. In 2011, 1,676 cases of hepatitis C (both acute and chronic cases) were reported. No information was provided about the presumed mode of transmission in about half of the reported cases, but in the cases where the mode of transmission is known, 83 per cent were infected through the use of needles. For the time being, data from MSIS cannot distinguish between cases involving new infection with hepatitis C and cases where the infection occurred many years ago. It is therefore not known whether newly acquired hepatitis C infection has declined or increased among drug users in recent years.
    "Among OST patients, the status survey for 2011 (see Chapter 5.2.2) shows that, for the country as a whole, 65 per cent of the clients were hepatitis C antibody positive, roughly the same proportion as in 2010. This is lower than expected, and the explanation is probably that the percentage with unknown status was as high as 20 per cent."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 33.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  13. (Drug-Related Mortality) "Concerning the 248 drug-related deaths in 2010 that were recorded by Statistics Norway, 173 (70 %) deaths involved opioids with or without additional drugs (Figure 5), 93 were deaths due to heroin (X42, X44, X62, X64 + T401), 36 deaths were recorded with methadone poisoning as the underlying cause (X42, X44, X62, X64 + T403), and 44 with other opioids, either as poisoning or dependency (X42, X44, X62, X64 + T402, F112). The remaining 75 deaths broke down as follows: 16 other synthetic narcotic substances (X42, X44, X62 + T404), 27 psychostimulants (X41, X44 + T436), 13 unspecified narcotic substances (X42, X44 + T406), 19 cases of dependency on other stimulants and dependency on multiple/ other drugs (F152,F192), and zero deaths from cocaine (T405). In 2010, 25 (10 %) of the included deaths were coded as suicides (X62, X64), which is probably a conservative estimate of the suicide rate."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), pp. 34-35.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  14. (Drug-Involved Deaths By Drug Type) "Many of the drug-related deaths are believed to be due to extensive multiple-drug use. The heroin-specific metabolite monoacetylmorphine was detected in 38 per cent of the deaths, but other substances were found to be present as well in 40 per cent of heroin/morphine-related deaths. Methadone was detected in 16 per cent of the deaths, but it was the only detected substance in only 18 cases. Amphetamine and/or methamphetamine and/or cocaine were detected in 16 per cent of the deaths."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 35.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  15. (Mortality Among Patients In Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST)) "Of the 6,640 patients in the OST programme in Norway at the end of 2011, 54 deaths from various causes were reported by the centres during 2011, indicating a total mortality rate of about 0.8 per 100 patient-years while in OST. This is on par with the previous year (Table 4). The majority of deaths in OST were due to somatic causes and injuries.
    "It is generally accepted that the annual mortality rate among untreated injecting heroin users is in the range of two to four per cent. In a study of Norwegian OST programme participants for the period 1997–2003, an annual mortality rate of 2.4 per cent was found prior to treatment, and 3.5 per cent post-treatment among those who terminated OST. In the same study, the annual mortality rate was 1.4 per cent for those in active OST. For patients in active OST, causes of death were: somatic causes 55 per cent, overdoses 27 per cent and trauma 18 per cent, whereas, for the observed times prior to and after OST, overdoses dominated as the cause of death. The annual mortality rate for patients in OST has gradually decreased in Norway since 2002, from an estimated 1.5 per cent to a current rate of 0.8 per cent."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 37.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  16. (Waiting Times for Treatment) "Waiting times for treatment for drug and alcohol problems appear to be decreasing. The Norwegian National Patient Register publishes statistics every quarter of waiting times for treatment and violations of treatment guarantees. In interdisciplinary specialised treatment, the average waiting time in 2011 was 72 days for patients who were entitled to prioritised treatment (both alcohol and drug problems), a reduction of eight days from 2009. In the first four months of 2012, the waiting time decreased further to 66 days. The average waiting time for patients in mental
    health care was 54 days in 2011, roughly the same as in the two preceding years. If the patient does not wish to accept the offer of treatment he/she is given, but chooses instead to wait for an available place in a particular institution, the waiting time will usually be considerably longer."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), pp. 29-30.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  17. (Treatment Usage) "In 2011, reports were submitted to the NPR [Norwegian Patient Registry] from 159 units in the specialist health service concerning a total of 8,817 patients who started treatment for primarily drug-related problems (2010: 8,750 patients from 158 units). The number of patients broke down as 3,921 in in-patient treatment and 4,896 in outpatient treatment, including OST [Opioid Substitution Treatment]. Around 68 per cent of the total number of patients in treatment were men. The average age of patients in in-patient treatment was 35 years for men and 34 years for women, fairly similar to patients in outpatient treatment (men: 34 years, women: 35 years)."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 30.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  18. (Opioid Substitution Program) "The proportion treated with methadone was 47 per cent, while 53 per cent were treated with buprenorphine-based medication. Nationwide, 67 per cent now get their medication prescribed by their GP. GPs thus play a key role in OST, a role that seems to be increasing. Almost half (47%) are issued their medication at a pharmacy, and an additional 32 per cent receive it from municipal services. Only three per cent received their medication from an OST centre."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 31.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  19. (Availability of Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST)) "The Norwegian OST programme was established in 1998. It was run by 14 centres in the four health regions until 2010. Special guidelines were introduced from 1 January 2010, which emphasised, among other things, that OST should be integrated in the ordinary specialist health service (see NR 2010 Chapter 11). The basic model of a tripartite collaboration comprising social security offices, GPs and the specialist health service was retained, and the indication for OST shall be assessed by the specialist health service.
    "Integration of OST in the health trusts was completed in 2011. OST centres are no longer a separate type of measure, and the system of special decision-making powers has been discontinued. The health trusts’ admission bodies have been given overriding authority. Each health trust shall have a body that makes an overall assessment of whether OST is the correct treatment option, but how this is organised is decided by the health trusts. The same applies to how the treatment start-up and stabilisation shall take place. Following the change, OST has been established as a separate unit with a separate management in some places, as a dedicated team in other places, and in yet others as an integral part of the interdisciplinary specialist treatment without a separate management over and above a coordinator."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 28.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  20. (Emergency Facilities and Ambulance Call-Outs) "The accident and emergency service in Oslo has a project called Prosjekt ungdom og rus på legevakta (‘Young people and alcohol/drugs at the accident and emergency service’), which is a specialised team that is part of the municipal emergency drug and alcohol facilities. In a collaboration between the municipality and the health authorities, the accident and emergency services in Oslo and Bergen have set up dedicated reception facilities for people with drug or alcohol problems, and observation beds for short-term admissions. Wards have been established in both Oslo and Bergen to take care of persons with drug or alcohol problems in emergency situations.
    "The ambulance service is often called out to drug addicts who have overdosed. Figures from the emergency medical communication centre (AMK) for Oslo and Akershus show that a total of 3,300 ambulance call-outs in 2011 were due to overdoses. The AMK centre in Bergen registered 97 overdose call-outs relating to the use of opioids during the period October 2011–March 2012, compared with 224 in the previous half-year. In the same period, 108 call-outs relating to overdoses of GHB/GBL were registered, compared with 101 in the previous half-year. The AMK centre also registered 66 overdose call-outs where the type of drug was unknown during the
    period October 2011–March 2012."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 38.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  21. (Avaibility and Use of Syringe Exchange Programs) "The primary objective of needle exchange programmes is to reduce the risk of infectious diseases associated with the sharing of injection equipment. Approximately 3.3 million syringes were handed out in Norway in 2007, largely through low-threshold services. In a follow-up survey carried out by SIRUS, 14 towns/municipalities reported that almost 3.1 million syringes were handed out in 2009. Of these, 85 per cent or 2,635 million were distributed in the three biggest cities Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim. In 2011, these cities reported about the same number, 2,639 million, 1.87 million of them in Oslo alone (see also Chapter 12). Sales through pharmacies come in addition, but we lack an overview of sales to drug users in this context."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 42.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  22. (Naloxone Availability) "Naloxone is the most common antidote used for overdoses. It is normally ambulance personnel who administer naloxone in connection with opioid overdoses, and doses are administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection. It is now being discussed whether naloxone in the form of a mouth spray should be available to others as well, as first aid for someone who has overdosed
    until the ambulance arrives."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 38.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  23. (Drug Control Spending By Norwegian Government) "The Norwegian welfare model, which includes drug and alcohol policy, is based on rights and universal schemes under which benefits and services are provided according to needs and not symptoms. Expenditure on drug-related problems is divided between several budget chapters, mostly in the form of universal welfare services and rights irrespective of diagnosis. The uncertainty attached to calculating the size of drug-related expenditure is so great that it is simply not possible. In addition, there is a lot of grant funding for which ‘drugs’ is one of several purposes.
    "In 2012, more than EUR 125 million (NOK 1 billion) more will be spent on the drugs and alcohol field than was the case in 2005. Strengthening of the municipalities’ finances and the increase in the basic allocations to the four regional health authorities comes in addition."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 16.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  24. Laws & Policies

    (Norway's National Strategy) "On 22 June 2012, the Government presented a white paper on drugs and alcohol policy.4 This is the first white paper setting out a comprehensive drugs and alcohol policy that covers alcohol, drugs, addictive medicinal drugs, and doping as a social problem. In the white paper, the Government presents targets and measures ranging from effective prevention, early intervention and help for people with extensive drug and alcohol problems to measures targeting next-of-kin and third parties affected by the harm caused by drug and alcohol use.
    "The main topics in the report are challenges and policies relating to alcohol, which is the substance that causes most harm, and drugs.
    "The policy relating to doping as a social problem is integrated in the white paper. Based on the fact that doping can cause physical, mental and social problems, the Government advocates mobilising against doping through preventive, treatment and crime-combating measures, and it proposes criminalising possession and use of doping. The white paper also describes efforts to achieve the correct prescription and use of addictive medicinal drugs."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 12.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  25. (Access to Treatment and Waiting Times) "Pursuant to the Patients’ Rights Act, referrals to the specialist health service shall be assessed within 30 working days. In cases where the patient is granted a right to treatment, an individual deadline shall be set for when he/she shall receive the necessary treatment at the latest. A special waiting time guarantee for children and young people under the age of 23 with mental health problems or drug-related complaints stipulates that they shall be assessed within ten working days.
    "The Patients’ Rights Act entitles patients to free choice of treatment facility, but not free choice of treatment level. For example, a patient cannot choose in-patient treatment if he or she has been granted a right to outpatient treatment."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 29.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  26. (Drugged Driving Laws) "With effect from 1 February 2012, the Storting Implementation of the national action plan introduced ‘drug driving limits’ for 20 narcotic substances and potentially intoxicating medicinal drugs. Norway thereby became the first country in the world to set legal and sentencing limits for substances other than alcohol. The amendments to the Road Traffic Act entered
    into force on 22 July 2012. Among other things, the amendments are intended to ensure greater agreement between the Road Traffic Act’s provisions on drink driving and the regulation of driving under the influence of other intoxicating or narcotic substances."
    [Note: The Storting is the Norwegian Parliament.]

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 6.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  27. (Drugged Driving Law) "For 20 intoxicating substances, it has been documented that use entails an increased risk of a road accident. Concentration limits corresponding to a blood alcohol level of 0.2 mg/ml have been adopted for these substances.
    "Sentencing limits corresponding to 0.5 mg/ml and 1.2 mg/ml
    "For 13 of the 20 substances, sentencing limits have been adopted that correspond to the intoxication normally associated with a blood alcohol level of 0.5 and 1.2 mg/ml, respectively. There is documentation that intoxication becomes more pronounced at higher concentrations of these substances. As for alcohol, the development of tolerance to such substances is not taken into consideration.
    "The limits are linked to one individual drug, and not to combinations of drugs. If several substances are found in a case, and the concentration of one of the drugs is higher than the highest sentencing limit, it will not be necessary to carry out an individual (expert) assessment."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 81.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  28. (Emergency Drug and Alcohol Treatment Centers) "The municipality is responsible for organising an accident and emergency service to attend to the population’s need for emergency assistance. This includes emergency assistance for people with mental illness and drug or alcohol problems.
    "Emergency drug and alcohol treatment facilities have been established in several cities in recent years. The measures are organised differently, and the type of services offered varies. What they have in common is that they are open 24 hours a day, are easily accessible and provide assistance to users in an acute life situation."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 38.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...

  29. (Norwegian National Strategy to Reduce Overdose) "The Government will task the Directorate of Health with drawing up a separate national strategy for reducing overdoses in collaboration with relevant agencies, such as user and next-of-kin organisations and the municipalities. The goal is an annual reduction of the number of overdose fatalities. The purpose is to stimulate the development of more local strategies for municipalities that have registered overdose fatalities. The local strategies should have concrete targets and measures in the following areas:
    "• Responsibility for further development and coordination of the health services and a clear assignment of responsibility when there is a risk of overdose fatalities
    "• Further competence-raising among particularly involved personnel, such as ambulance personnel and accident and emergency services staff
    "• Prevention of overdoses following discharge from institutions
    "• Necessary information to and involvement of next-of-kin
    "• Influencing the user culture (reducing the extent of injection) and further developing
    life-saving measures.
    "The results will be summarised and evaluated after five years. The Directorate of Health will prepare indicators for measuring the development of the overdose situation and assess the need for professional guidelines."

    Source: 
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 40.
    http://www.sirus.no/filestore/Import_vedlegg/Vedlegg_publikasjon/drugsit...