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Czech Republic Data and Policies

  1. Basic Data

    Prevalence and Trends

    (Prevalence of Drug Use in Czech Republic, 2011) "Lifetime alcohol and tobacco use was reported by the majority of the respondents (91% and 66% respectively). The use of alcohol and tobacco in the last month also recorded high levels: smoking tobacco and drinking in the last 30 days were reported by almost 39% and 69% of the respondents respectively. Men are more likely to use legal drugs. While smoking cigarettes was reported more frequently by individuals aged 15–24, older age categories showed higher levels of alcohol use.
    "Traditionally, the most common illicit substance is cannabis (marijuana and hashish), which 24.9% of the respondents (30.8% of the males and 18.8% of the females) reported having used at least once in their lifetime, followed by ecstasy (5.8%) and hallucinogenic mushrooms (4.1%) (Národní monitorovací středisko pro drogy a drogové závislosti and Factum Invenio, 2011). The use of the 'new synthetic drugs' was reported by a total of 1.4% of the respondents, which exceeds the respective rates of experiences with cocaine, heroin, and inhalants reported by the respondents; see Table 2-1.
    "8.9% of the respondents (12.7% of the males and 4.9% of the females) reported cannabis use in the last 12 months), with 16.1% and 22.5% of the respondents falling into the 15–34 and 15–24 age categories respectively."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Grohmannová, K., Chomynová, P., Nečas, V., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Nechanská, B., Fidesová, H., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J., Kostelecká, L., Jurystová, L. (2012) "Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2011 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 25.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index213816EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_213817_EN_Czech%20Repub...


  2. Crime, Courts, and Prisons

    (Crimes Committed Under the Influence of Alcohol and Other Drugs) "The Criminal Statistics Record System again provided data on offences committed under the influence of alcohol and non-alcohol drugs in 2010 (Policie ČR, 2011). In 2010, a total of 117.7 thousand offences were cleared up, 19.6 thousand (16.6%) of which were committed under the influence of addictive substances, of which alcohol was involved in 17.3 thousand (14.7%) cases. As in 2009, the most common criminal offences were endangerment under the influence of an addictive substance, inebriation (9.1 thousand), road traffic accidents caused by negligence (2.7 thousand), voluntary bodily harm, disorderly conduct, damage to property, and assault. A total of 2.3 thousand offences (1.9%) were reported as having been committed under the influence of substances other than alcohol and again most frequently involved endangerment under the influence of an addictive substance, inebriation (1.6 thousand), obstructing justice (193), various types of thefts or burglaries (168), and the unauthorised production of narcotic or psychotropic substances (98); see Table 9-10."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 124.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  3. (Misdemeanor Personal Use Offenses Reported by Local Governments) "A total of 970 misdemeanours involving drug possession for personal use were reported in 2006, and 966 misdemeanours were reported in 2007. The incomplete data available for 2008114 show 450 cases of misdemeanours, in which 473 persons participated.
    "752 misdemeanours involving the possession of a small quantity of drugs for personal use were recorded in 2009. One fifth of the perpetrators were minors, and the cases most commonly concerned the possession of marijuana or pervitin [Methamphetamine] or cannabis plants. 1,021 misdemeanours involving the possession of small amounts of drugs or the cultivation of a small number of plants containing a narcotic or psychotropic substance were recorded in 2010. They again mostly concerned adults (85%) and drug possession (94%), with only 6% of the misdemeanours involving the cultivation of plants containing narcotic or psychotropic substances for personal use; see Table 9-8 and Table 9-9."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 123.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  4. (Prison Population and Number of Drug Offenses)
    "There were 36 prisons and remand centres (hereinafter referred to as prisons) in the Czech Republic in 2010. The number of prisoners has been increasing in recent years; as of the end of 2010, the Prison Service of the Czech Republic registered a total of 21,900 prisoners116, with 19,449 persons serving prison sentences, 2,443 awaiting trial in custody, and 8 being the inmates of the detention institution in the Brno prison. As of the date specified above, 1,293 prisoners were female. Most prisoners (22%) were serving prison sentences of 1–2 years; the most common age group among the persons sentenced (35%) was 30–40, and most persons were serving their sentence in high-security prisons (49%).
    "As of the end of 2010, a total of 2,016 drug-related criminal offences according to Sections 187–188a of the old Penal Code or Sections 283, 284, 286, and 287 of the new Penal Code in force from January 2010 were registered among the prisoners; see Table 9-12. However, the total number of prisoners could be lower because a single person may have been sentenced for committing multiple drug-related offences (e.g. there were four people sentenced under Section 285 of the Penal Code, among other charges, in 2010)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, pp. 125-126.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  5. Problem Drug Use and Its Correlates

    (Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Czech Republic) "The trends in the estimated numbers of problem drug users are influenced by both input data entries: there is a positive correlation with regard to the number of low-threshold service clients, while the multiplier value impacts on the estimates in a negative correlation (the higher the number of persons in contact, the lower the overall estimated number of problem drug users). Given that in recent years there has been increasing pressure on the economic efficiency of programmes and the number of clients is one of the indicators monitored in the funding of these services, one can assume a systematic increase in the number of reported clients as a result of more thorough records and more intensive outreach work. At the same time, the same multiplier established in 2010 is used in the estimates for 2009, 2010, and 2011 and may not accurately reflect the actual proportion of problem drug users in contact. Both factors probably cause an overestimation in the estimates.
    "In 2011, the number of problem drug users in the Czech Republic was estimated at approximately 40,200 (95% CI82: 32,700–47,700), of whom 30,900 (29,900–31,900) were pervitin users, 4,700 (4,350–6,000) were heroin users, and 4,600 (4,300–4,850) were users of buprenorphine (primarily Subutex®). Therefore, the numbers of opiate users were estimated at 9,300 (8,800–9,750) in total. The number of injecting drug users (IDUs) was estimated at 38,600 (37,300–39,900)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Grohmannová, K., Chomynová, P., Nečas, V., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Nechanská, B., Fidesová, H., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J., Kostelecká, L., Jurystová, L. (2012) "Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2011 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, pp. 48-49.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index213816EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_213817_EN_Czech%20Repub...


  6. (HIV and Injection Drug Use) "In 2010, just as in 2009, there were seven newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection in which the route of transmission may have been through injecting drug use; this means a return to the numbers in the period before 200783. Altogether, 1,522 HIV-positive persons with a permanent place of residence in the Czech Republic were registered as of December 31, 2010; 70 of them are injecting drug users (IDUs) and another 27 are in the mixed category encompassing injecting drug use and homo-/bisexual intercourse. Injecting drug use remains a significantly minor route of HIV infection in the Czech Republic (Státní zdravotní ústav Praha, 2011c; Státní zdravotní ústav Praha, 2011a); see Table 6-1."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 83.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  7. (Drug-Related Deaths) "In 2010, 194 fatal overdoses on illicit drugs, inhalants, and psychotropic medication were identified (225 in 2009). Of this number, 55 cases fell under the standard EMCDDA selection D for drug-related deaths, i.e. cases of fatal overdoses on illegal drugs and inhalants (49 in 2009), and 139 cases involved psychotropic pills (176 in 2009). The substances which caused the fatal overdoses were successfully identified in all cases in 2010.
    "A total of 19 cases of fatal overdoses on (illegal) opiates were identified (20 cases in 2009); most were heroin overdoses (13 confirmed or very probable cases). In 13 cases, the opiates were identified alone or together with ethanol (six cases), while in the other six cases opiates were combined with other substances (such as pervitin [Methamphetamine], MDMA, and pills). Two cases probably involved a fatal overdose on opium (of these, one was in combination with ethanol, the other in combination with pervitin and tramadol). In one case the cause of death was a fentanyl overdose in combination with ethanol (a small amount of fentanyl was also found in another overdose case classified as a pervitin overdose). Methadone was found in two overdose cases: one was in combination with ethanol, while pervitin and benzodiazepines were present in the other case."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 95.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  8. (Open Drug Scenes in Prague, Czech Republic) "Detailed information about open drug scenes in Prague was provided in the 2010 Annual Report. These are found mainly in the city districts of Prague 1, 2, and 5, in the very centre of Prague, on Wenceslas Square and Charles Square and in the Vrchlický Gardens near the main railway station, but also in Smíchov. In 2011, the open drug scene did not change much, covering mainly the city centre – especially Wenceslas Square, with an estimate of more than 2,500 people each year and 300–500 daily, and Charles Square. At the end of 2011 the open drug scene shifted significantly towards the Vrchlický Gardens, i.e. a site where (injecting) drug use is tolerated (200–300 drug users daily). Smaller local drug scenes can be observed in the districts of Prague 3, 7, 8, 10, and 13 (Hlavní město Praha, 2012).
    "The relocation of a physician prescribing buprenorphine from Prague 5 to Prague 4 led to the creation of a new open drug scene there in the spring of 2012. In addition, the provision of substitution treatment there was temporarily discontinued at the end of April 2012, which caused an interim shortage of prescription buprenorphine® and the escalation of tensions on the drug scene. The price of 1⁄4 tablet of Subutex on the black market rose from CZK 100 (€ 4) to CZK 300 (€ 12) and it was estimated that several hundred injecting drug users were temporarily without access to drug substitution. A working group of the Prague City Council responded to the situation by issuing 2,000 copies of warning leaflets for users, entitled Subutex Crisis88; see also the chapter Estimation of Clients in Substitution Treatment and Problem Use of Buprenorphine (p. 68)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Grohmannová, K., Chomynová, P., Nečas, V., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Nechanská, B., Fidesová, H., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J., Kostelecká, L., Jurystová, L. (2012) "Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2011 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 54.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index213816EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_213817_EN_Czech%20Repub...


  9. Treatment

    (Treatment Demand and Utilization in Czech Republic, 2011) "The number of providers of outpatient health services reporting the treatment of drug users in 2011 remained almost unchanged; the number of patients receiving outpatient alcohol/drug (AT) treatment decreased again, by more than 2%, as a result of a drop in the number of patients using alcohol, as well as those using drugs other than alcohol (excluding tobacco). There was a decline in the number of patients in all three of the most numerous groups treated for non-alcohol drugs, i.e. opiates/opioids, stimulants other than cocaine, and polydrug use.
    "Again, the number of patients entered in the Substitution Treatment Register increased, both in specialised centres and at the offices of other physicians who prescribe products containing buprenorphine; however, treatment with these preparations is still not fully covered by the Register. As a new development, aggregated data on the number of patients in substitution treatment in the offices of psychiatrists and general practitioners for adults are monitored. 2,290 people were reported to the Substitution Treatment Register in 2011, approximately half of the total number reported by psychiatrists and general practitioners.
    "In 2011, the detoxification units were located in 17 inpatient facilities with 150 dedicated beds and detoxification was provided in an additional 12 inpatient facilities. In total, 7,161 persons underwent detoxification from addictive substances during the year, of whom 3,199 underwent detoxification from illicit drugs.
    "There has been an increase in the number of hospitalisations of users of drugs other than alcohol (excluding tobacco) in inpatient psychiatric facilities. The increase concerns patients admitted for disorders caused by polydrug use and the use of stimulants other than cocaine, while the number of hospitalisations for disorders caused by the use of opiates/opioids decreased.
    "The number of drug users in the Public Health Service’s Register of Treatment Demands has been rising since 2008. In 2011, a total of 9,284 drug users sought treatment services, i.e. 279 more people than in 2010. The users of stimulants have long dominated among treatment demands (64.9%) – most of them use pervitin as their primary drug. As in previous years, opiate/opioid users (19.3%) represented the second largest group of all treatment demands, while cannabis users (18.6%) are number two among first treatment demands. It is obvious that the population of users demanding treatment is growing older, as in 2011 the average age of those demanding treatment was 27.4 years. Women consistently make up less than a third of those demanding treatment.
    "In 2011, a total of 273 facilities were registered in the Register of Treatment Demands, with 205 actively reporting. 255 facilities completed the questionnaire administered as part of the 2012 Drug Services Survey. They included facilities of various types – social, health, and educational, as well as religious facilities providing a range of low-threshold, outpatient, and residential services. The core of the drug services in the Czech Republic can be considered as consisting of approximately 250 facilities (excluding prevention programmes)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Grohmannová, K., Chomynová, P., Nečas, V., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Nechanská, B., Fidesová, H., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J., Kostelecká, L., Jurystová, L. (2012) "Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2011 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 55.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index213816EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_213817_EN_Czech%20Repub...


  10. (Accredited Substitution Treatment Facilities and Physicians) "All physicians administering a substitution drug are obliged by law to report patient data to the National Register of Users of Medically Indicated Substitution Substances (NRULISL, the Substitution Treatment Register). This register has been in existence since May 2000 and is administered and compiled by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic. An electronic web-based NRULISL application has been in operation since November 200769 . As there are still some practices which do not have a personal computer or are not connected to the internet, NRULISL was adapted in 2010 so that patient reporting could also be conducted using paper forms70.
    "A total of seven accredited methadone centres provided substitution therapy in 2000, and their number gradually increased to 13 facilities in 2007. Another 11 reporting facilities were added in 2008, when unaccredited facilities also started to report to the electronic version of the Substitution Treatment Register (such as psychiatric outpatient facilities and general practitioners). By 2009 there were 34 healthcare facilities reporting treated clients, including general practitioners of adult medicine (two facilities), psychiatric outpatient facilities (five facilities), eight prisons, and a military hospital. In 2010 the number of reporting facilities rose to 45, mainly as a result of reporting from independent psychiatric services and AT outpatient units at hospitals. The methadone centre Ulice – Agentura sociální práce, a civic association, in Pilsen started to report clients in June 2010, followed by the AT clinic at Semily Hospital (Liberec Region) in December 2010. As a result, the Pardubice Region remains the only region that does not have an actively reporting facility (Nechanská et al. 2011; Nechanská, 2011g); see Table 5-8."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 61.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  11. (Number of Clients in Substitition Treatment) "The proportions found for prescribing physicians according to their specialisation, as well as the average number of patients in substitution treatment per physician, correspond with the results of the same study conducted in 2007, although some specialisations (psychiatrists) are underrepresented in the 2010 survey. In 2007 it was found that 11% of psychiatrists, 2% of surgeons, 1% of internists, and 5% of general practitioners of adult medicine provided substitution treatment (Subutex®), which is practically the same as the percentage found in 2010. The average number of patients in substitution treatment per general practitioner overall also remained practically unchanged – 0.25% (for more information see the 2007 Annual Report).
    "Given the structure of the study sample and the results based on specialisation, the number of patients in substitution treatment in the Czech Republic was estimated only for general practitioners of adult medicine – the results obtained from the general practitioners in the sample were extrapolated to the total number of 5,298 general practitioners of adult medicine in the Czech Republic in 2010.
    "It can be estimated that, in 2010, approximately 230 general practitioners of adult medicine in the Czech Republic
    provided Subutex® or Suboxone® to their patients, prescribing Subutex® to approximately 650 patients and Suboxone® to 160 patients. After extrapolation, there are approximately 1,300 patients in substitution treatment under the care of general practitioners – this figure probably also includes patients on methadone, which is only available at (specialised) methadone substitution centres. In 2007, there were an estimated total of 240 general practitioners prescribing Subutex® to 1,360 patients (furthermore, there were an estimated 150 psychiatrists prescribing Subutex® to 3,000 patients in 2007); see the 2007 Annual Report.
    "Additional questions in the study related to reports made to the Substitution Treatment Register (NRULISL). The responses show that just 71% of the physicians providing substitution treatment are registered, and only a third of the physicians who provide substitution report patients to the register; for a breakdown by specialisation see Table 5-12."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, pp. 64-65.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  12. (Aftercare and Reintegration Services) "In the Czech Republic, aftercare for drug users and their social inclusion are provided for through outpatient aftercare programmes, which may include sheltered housing programmes and sheltered work programmes (sheltered workshops, sheltered employment, and supported employment). The target group of the structured intensive aftercare programmes consists of people with the recommended abstinence period of at least 3 months.
    "There are approximately 30 aftercare programmes for drug users in place in the Czech Republic, with the target group of some of the programmes being only alcohol users or only illicit drug users. As of September 2011, a total of 34 aftercare programmes for the target group of persons at risk of addiction or persons with a substance addiction were included in the Register of Social Service Providers, administered by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Sixteen aftercare programmes for (illicit) drug users were subsidised by the Government Council for Drug Policy Coordination in 2010, with detailed information about these programmes being available from the projects’ final reports. Thirteen programmes offered their clients sheltered housing and four also provided protected employment.
    "Altogether, 987 clients (610 of them male) used the aftercare services; 720 (72%) of them used to inject drugs before they entered treatment; 583 (59%) used to use pervitin and 155 (15%) heroin. The total capacity of the facilities offering sheltered housing was 127 places. 25 clients worked in sheltered workshops (Národní monitorovací středisko pro drogy a drogové závislosti, 2011j); see Table 8-2."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, pp. 113-114.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  13. Harm Reduction

    (Availability and Activity of Harm Reduction Programs in Czech Republic) "Harm reduction has been one of the main areas of the Czech drug policy in the long term. Low-threshold drop-in centres and outreach programmes across the Czech Republic form the basis of the network of services in this area.
    "The number of low-threshold programmes for drug users varies between 90 and 100 programmes from year to year; in recent years, however, there has been a marked increase in the number of clients in contact. In the long term, there has also been a steady increase in the number of contacts and the quantity of needles, syringes, and other injecting paraphernalia exchanged; over 5 million needles and syringes were distributed in 2011.
    "In the last three years, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of tests for infectious diseases among drug users who are in contact with the low-threshold services, the largest year-on-year increase having been recorded in testing for syphilis. In the Czech Republic, there is still no statutory regulation or guidance for the testing and prevention of infections among drug users that would consider using rapid screening tests in low-threshold services for drug users."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Grohmannová, K., Chomynová, P., Nečas, V., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Nechanská, B., Fidesová, H., Kalina, K., Vopravil, J., Kostelecká, L., Jurystová, L. (2012) "Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2011 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 109.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index213816EN.html
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_213817_EN_Czech%20Repub...


  14. (Distribution of Gelatin Capsules as Alternative to Injection) "Needle and syringe exchange programmes are complemented by the distribution of aluminium foil for smoking heroin and the distribution of gelatine capsules intended for the oral application of the drug as an alternative to injecting, in particular in the case of pervitin [Methamphetamine].
    "The use of the capsules by the respondents was examined under the Multiplier 2010 project, which was primarily aimed at estimating the proportion of problem drug users in contact with low-threshold facilities (for details see the chapter on Problem Drug Use on page 41 and the chapter on Testing for Infectious Diseases below). 189 out of the total of 642 respondents (29.4%) received capsules for the oral application of the drug last year, with most of them (87.8%) being pervitin users.
    "An internet survey conducted in 2008 found that gelatine capsules were distributed by 16 of the 50 low-threshold facilities (32%) which responded to the questionnaire (Mravčík et al. 2010). In the monitoring of tests for infections among injecting drug users in low-threshold programmes in 2009 (Národní monitorovací středisko pro drogy a drogové závislosti, 2010c), a total of 20 low-threshold programmes provided their responses (see also the chapter on Drug-related Infectious Diseases on page 65). Fourteen (70%) of these programmes conducted a capsule distribution programme, having issued 28,638 capsules to 719 drug (most commonly pervitin) users."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Škařupová, K., Šťastná, L., Škrdlantová, E., Kiššová, L., Běláčková, V., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Kalina, K., Gabrhelík, R., Zábranský, T. (2010). Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2009 Drug Situation. Praha: Úřad vlády České republiky, p. 84.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_142349_EN_CZ-NR2010.pdf


  15. (Use of Gelatin Capsule as Alternative to Injecting) "The results were published of a study conducted from mid-2007 to March 2009 with the pervitin [Methamphetamine]-using clients of the Charáč drop-in centre in Uherské Hradiště (a qualitative study analysing 7 semi-structured interviews and a survey in the form of a structured interview with 49 clients) and aimed at the user habits and experience with the use of capsules (Guryčová, 2010). One of the findings was that the handling of the capsule and its application were not considered difficult, especially among the more experienced users. The onset and intensity of the effects are described as lower in the case of oral use in comparison with injection. In addition, the dose used for oral application is higher. There are less frequent reports of overdose sensations, or the overdose was described as less intense in the case of oral application involving the capsules. The passing of the effects of pervitin was also perceived as milder compared to injecting application."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Škařupová, K., Šťastná, L., Škrdlantová, E., Kiššová, L., Běláčková, V., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Kalina, K., Gabrhelík, R., Zábranský, T. (2010). Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2009 Drug Situation. Praha: Úřad vlády České republiky, p. 84.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_142349_EN_CZ-NR2010.pdf


  16. Economics

    (Drug Control Spending in Czech Republic) "The total sum of labelled expenditures earmarked for the drug policy amounted to CZK 627.4 million (€ 24,807 thousand)25 in 2010, which is 3.3% more in comparison to the year 200926. It should be taken into account, however, that the extent of the expenditure that is included may vary on a year-on-year basis. Generally, it should also be noted that more sources of expenditures attributable to the drug policy are being identified and scrutinised. This year, for example, they are the expenditures of the Ministry of Health, which newly includes selected health promotion and research projects.
    "2010 expenditures from the state budget amounted to a total of CZK 371.6 million (€ 14,694 thousand); the trends of ministries and institutions from 2002 to 2010 are summarised in Table 1-2.
    "The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic provides subsidies for drug policy programmes endorsed by the Government Council for Drug Policy Coordination. In 2010 such subsidies were used to support a total of 139 local prevention, harm reduction, treatment, and aftercare projects to the tune of almost CZK 82.0 million (€ 3,242 thousand). The expenditure designated for the activities developed by the GCDPC’s Secretariat, including the National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (National Focal Point), amounted to CZK 3.5 million (€ 138 thousand)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 17.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  17. (Drug Control Spending by Czech Republic Health Ministry) "In 2010 the Ministry of Health provided a total amount of CZK 21.5 million (€ 849 thousand) for the drug policy, including CZK 814 thousand (€ 32 thousand) dedicated to capital expenditure. As part of the Drug Policy of the Ministry of Health subsidy programme, projects involving substitution treatment, detoxification, outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and harm reduction services for drug addicts were supported in 2010 with a total of CZK 9.3 million (€ 368 thousand). Another subsidy programme, National Health Programme – Health Promotion Projects, the resources for which were included in the drug policy-specific expenditures for the first time in 2010, was used to support four projects concerned with the prevention of tobacco and alcohol use to the tune of CZK 747 thousand (€ 30 thousand)28. Additionally, ten projects focused on substance use-related research and development were supported with a total amount of CZK 10.3 million (€ 407 thousand) provided from the budget of the Ministry of Health in 2010."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 17.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  18. Laws & Policies

    (Czech Republic's National Drug Strategy) "The National Drug Policy Strategy for the Period 2010–2018 is not very different from the previous strategy covering the period from 2005 to 2009. The basic structure, principles, key areas of interest, and pillars of the drug policy remained unaltered. However, the strategy is newly perceived as a long-term document, the purpose of which is to define, in political terms, the framework for the drug policy, the key areas of interest, and the principles and approaches underpinning the Czech drug policy.
    "Therefore, the new national strategy was conceived in such a way as to remain in effect for 9 years. It defines four general objectives which correspond to the four pillars of the drug policy – Prevention, Treatment and Social Reintegration, Harm Reduction, and Drug Supply Reduction – complemented by three supporting domains: Coordination and Funding, Monitoring, Research, and Evaluation, and International Cooperation. See the 2009 Annual Report for more information.
    "Specific short-term drug policy procedures and measures are defined in the action plans for the implementation of the National Drug Policy Strategy (Action Plans). Three Action Plans, each spanning a period of three years, will be drawn up during the term of the Strategy."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 9.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  19. (Action Plan Areas of Activities for Treatment and Social Reintegration) "In 2010 the Government approved the National Drug Policy Strategy for the Period 2010–2018, and in 2011 it approved the 2010–2012 Action Plan. Treatment and social reintegration are one of the four pillars of the strategy, and all four priorities of the action plan concern this area (for more information see the chapter on National Action Plan, Strategy, Evaluation, and Coordination, p. 9). The Action Plan defines the following areas of activities for treatment and social integration:
    "• conceptual definition of the availability and continuity of treatment and after-care programmes for drug users;
    "• the development of special interventions for selected target groups of drug users, including increasing the quality of substitution treatment for opiate users;
    "• the development of programmes for drug users in prison and keeping these programmes available."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 55.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  20. (Action Plan Areas of Activity for Harm Reduction) "In 2010 the Government adopted the National Drug Policy Strategy for the Period 2010–2018 and the 2010–2012 Action Plan. Harm reduction is one of the four pillars (for details see the chapter on National Action Plan, Strategy, Evaluation, and Coordination, p. 9). The Action Plan defines the following areas of activity for harm reduction:
    "• develop interventions, particularly new ones, to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases, overdoses, and other health-related consequences of drug use among drug users;
    "• increase the level of testing of drug users for infectious diseases;
    "• define guidelines for harm reduction services provided in nightlife settings."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 104.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  21. (Tasks for the Prison Service from the Drug Policy Action Plan) "One of the responsibilities of the Ministry of Justice under the National Drug Policy Strategy for the Period 2010–2018 is to provide services in the area of prevention, treatment, and harm reduction for persons addicted to drugs and serving their prison sentence or on remand. The first action plan for the implementation of the Strategy, for the period 2010–2012, sets out specifies tasks for the Prison Service which were also translated into the Drug Policy Action Plan of the Prison Service of the Czech Republic for the Period 2011–2012 (for details on the National Strategy and on the Action Plan see the chapter on National Action Plan, Strategy, Evaluation, and Coordination on p. 9). They are the following tasks:
    "• place prisoners indicated for substitution therapy in prisons which provide such treatment;
    "• unify the system of services provided in accordance with the treatment standards;
    "• refer drug users to follow-up care in the community after completing their remand period or serving their prison sentence;
    "• cooperate with community counselling services in the provision of services in prisons;
    "• distribute harm reduction material in prisons;
    "• diagnose and treat HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis in prison;
    "• collect data regarding drug use, the abuse of medicines containing narcotic and psychotropic substances, and the consequences of the use of such substances among prisoners;
    "• educate professionals and other drug policy stakeholders."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, p. 141.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  22. (Legal Distinction Between Hard and Soft Drugs) ""Act. No. 40/2009, Coll., the Penal Code, became effective on 1 January 2010. It also introduced significant changes in the statutory provisions pertaining to primary drug crime. To a certain degree, the new legal regulation differentiates drugs according to their health and social risks as it makes a distinction between cannabis and other drugs in relation to the cultivation of cannabis for personal use and the possession of this substance for personal use. As far as other types of the unauthorised handling of drugs are concerned, the new Penal Code makes no further distinction between different drug categories. In addition to the aforementioned differentiation of drugs, the Penal Code also introduced the “privileged” (carrying less severe sanctions) constituent elements of the offence of the unauthorised cultivation of plants containing a narcotic or psychotropic substance (Section 285 of the law cited above)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Chomynová, P., Šťastná, L., Grolmusová, L., Kiššová, L., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Preslová, I., Doležalová, P., Koňák, T. (2011) Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2010 Drug Situation. Prague: Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, pp. 6-7.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_191769_EN_CzechRepublic...


  23. (Legal Distinctions Between Amounts of Substances) "The new Penal Code introduced substantial changes in the offences regarding the possession of narcotic and psychotropic substances and poisons for personal use and the unauthorised cultivation of plants containing a narcotic or psychotropic substance. These variations concern the partial division of drugs according to their health and social risks, which should facilitate the consideration of these offences. The stipulations of Section 284 of the new Penal Code, accounting for the criminal offence of Possession of a narcotic or psychotropic substance or poison, distinguish between the possession of cannabis and other drugs, but only when a quantity greater than small is concerned. As a result, the possession of cannabis in a quantity greater than small carries a sentence of up to a year’s imprisonment (the previous legal regulation prescribed a term of up to two years), while an offender found guilty of the possession of other narcotic or psychotropic substances or poisons in a quantity greater than small may be sent to prison for up to two years. A person convicted of the possession of any narcotic or psychotropic substance or poison, i.e. including cannabis, to a significant extent may be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of between six months and five years (the previous legal regulation prescribed one to five years) and, in the event of the same offence being committed to a substantial extent, an offender may receive a prison sentence ranging from two to eight years (the previous legal regulation imposed a term of between one and five years)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Škařupová, K., Šťastná, L., Škrdlantová, E., Kiššová, L., Běláčková, V., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Kalina, K., Gabrhelík, R., Zábranský, T. (2010). Annual Report: The Czech Republic – 2009 Drug Situation. Praha: Úřad vlády České republiky, p. 7.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_142349_EN_CZ-NR2010.pdf


  24. Possession for Personal Use
    Greater-Than-Small Quantities

    Type of Substance

    Quantity Greater-Than-Small
    Methamphetamine More than 2 g
    Heroin More than 1.5 g
    Cocaine More than 1 g
    Cannabis More than 15 g of dry matter
    Hashish More than 5 g
    Ecstasy (MDMA) More than 4 tablets/capsules or more than 0.4 g of powdery or crystaline substance
    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Škařupová, K., Šťastná, L., Škrdlantová, E., Kiššová, L.,
    Běláčková, V., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Kalina, K., Gabrhelík, R., Zábranský, T. (2010). Annual
    Report: The Czech Republic – 2009 Drug Situation. Praha: Úřad vlády České republiky, p. 8.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_142349_EN_CZ-NR2010.pdf


  25. (Penalties for Cultivation) "The provisions of Section 285 articulate the merits of a totally new offence, Unauthorised cultivation of plants containing a narcotic or psychotropic substance, which concerns the growing of plants and mushrooms containing narcotic and psychotropic substances for personal use. These provisions also differentiate between cannabis growers and the growers of other plants and mushrooms containing narcotic and psychotropic substances, but only if such an offence was committed to a small extent. The new Penal Code no longer makes a distinction between the growers of cannabis and other plants containing narcotic and psychotropic substances if the offence involves cultivation to a significant and substantial extent. The cultivation of cannabis in a quantity greater than small carries a sentence of imprisonment for a term of up to six months, while the grower of a plant or mushroom containing a narcotic or psychotropic substance in a quantity greater than small may be punished by a prison term of up to one year. The cultivation of plants or mushrooms containing a narcotic or psychotropic substance on a significant scale is punishable by imprisonment for up to three years, and the same offence committed on a substantial scale carries a prison sentence ranging from six months to five years. It should be noted that until 31 December 2009 cannabis growing was classified as an offence or attempted offence specified by the stipulations of Section 187 of the old Penal Code, with the general punishment range of 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment.
    "The possession of a narcotic or psychotropic substance in a small quantity and the cultivation of plants and mushrooms containing a small quantity of narcotic or psychotropic substances are sanctioned as misdemeanours – for more details see Section Changes in the Misdemeanour Act (p. 9)."

    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Škařupová, K., Šťastná, L., Škrdlantová, E., Kiššová, L.,
    Běláčková, V., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Kalina, K., Gabrhelík, R., Zábranský, T. (2010). Annual
    Report: The Czech Republic – 2009 Drug Situation. Praha: Úřad vlády České republiky, pp. 7-8.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_142349_EN_CZ-NR2010.pdf


  26. Cultivation of Plants and Mushrooms for Personal Use
    Greater-Than-Small Quantities

    List of Plants and Mushrooms
    Quantity Greater-Than-Small
    Plants of Cannabis containing more than 0.3% THC More than 5
    Plants containing DMT More than 5
    Plants containing 5-methoxy-DMT More than 5
    Plants containing Mescaline More than 5
    Coca Shrub More than 5
    Mushrooms containing Psilocybin and Psilocin More than 40
    Source: 

    Mravčík, V., Pešek, R., Horáková, M., Nečas, V., Škařupová, K., Šťastná, L., Škrdlantová, E., Kiššová, L.,
    Běláčková, V., Fidesová, H., Nechanská, B., Vopravil, J., Kalina, K., Gabrhelík, R., Zábranský, T. (2010). Annual
    Report: The Czech Republic – 2009 Drug Situation. Praha: Úřad vlády České republiky, p. 9.
    http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_142349_EN_CZ-NR2010.pdf