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  1. Basic Data

    (Prevalence of Substance Use) "As compared to the previous GPS 2007, there is a decrease in tobacco and alcohol use and an increase of illicit drugs and sedatives and/or tranquilisers, and the occurrence of the use of new psychoactive substances (SNPP) traded as “legal highs” or “ethno-botanical plants”, which record the highest lifetime prevalence of 1.9% in the age group 15-64. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is the most frequently used – 1.6%, followed by ecstasy – 0.7%, heroin – 0.3% and cocaine – 0.3%. To conclude, lifetime prevalence of drug use continues to focus on recreational drugs such as cannabis and ecstasy that are used mainly by young people aged 15 to 34, mainly male, located in Bucharest/ Ilfov and West euroregion. The novelty is the emerging worrisome use of new psychoactive substances (SNPP) traded as “legal drugs or ethno-botanical plants”, the first evidences of ketamine use at national level and a diversification of drug use in the adult generation, mainly women and in most regions of the country."

    Source: 
    "2011 National Report (2010 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2011) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 3.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  2. (Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use) "Drug use lifetime prevalence in the population aged 15 to 64 years is 4.3% for all types of illicit drugs but also for psychoactive substances traded as “legal drugs or ethno-botanical plants”: marijuana, ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, crack, amphetamines, ketamine, hallucinogens, heroin or opiates, mephedrone, spice, other ethno-botanical plants (increasing than in 2007 when the lifetime prevalence of drug use in the population aged 15 to 64 was 1.7%). If medication (tranquilisers, sedatives, anti-depressants) administered without medical prescription is considered the percentage reaches 8.3% (while in 2007 – 8.6%).
    "According to the data in the 2010 survey, cannabis is the most frequently used among the illicit drugs, up to 1.6%, followed by ecstasy – 0.7%, heroin - 0.3%, cocaine – 0.3%. If we included psychoactive substances traded as “legal highs” (and whose licit or illicit character depends on the substance it refers to), lifetime drug use prevalence for the age group 15-64 is 1.9%, which is the highest prevalence (0.6% report the use of substances containing synthetic cannabinoids – “Spice”, and 1.6% mention the use of other substances from the category of the so-called “ethno-botabical plants”)."

    Source: 
    "2011 National Report (2010 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2011) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 25-26.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  3. (Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Youth) "The prevalence of any type of illicit drug use 45 for at least once in their lifetime, among Romanian 16 years old adolescents was of 15.6 %. The gender distribution of the respondents shows a prevalence of the experimental use, for any type of illicit drugs, of 17.8 % among boys and of 13.8 % among girls.
    "The category ''any type of illicit drugs" within this analysis includes all the drugs considered illicit according to Romanian laws, based on the respondents' answers to the questions concerning the use of: cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine, crack, amphetamines, LSD or other hallucinogens, hallucinogenic mushrooms, heroin, GHB and inhalants at least once in their lifetime."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 18-19.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  4. (Lifetime Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Youth, by Substance) "The most experimented drugs among Romanian 16 years old young people are the cannabis and the inhalants, with a prevalence of 7.2 %. These, according to young people's drug-related lifetime preferences, are followed by NPSs – with 5.3 %, tranquilisers and sedatives used without medical prescription – 3.1 %, LSD and other hallucinogens – 2.1 %, ecstasy – 2.0 %, cocaine – 2.0 %, amphetamines – 1.7 %, heroin – 1.1 %, anabolic steroids – 1.1 %, hallucinogenic mushrooms – 1.0 %, crack – 0.9 %, GHB – 0.9 %.
    "The experimental use of alcohol in combination with pills shows a high prevalence among the 16 years old pupils (3.2 %), being preferred almost equally, both by girls and boys (3.2 % boys, 3.3 % girls), while the injecting drugs are the less experimented by them, recording the lowest lifetime prevalence (0.8 %).
    "There is a higher prevalence of drug use among boys for most types of analyzed drugs. The exception to the rule is the experimental use of cannabis, in which case there is the same use prevalence, both for girls and boys (7.2 %) and the use of tranquilisers and sedatives used without medical prescription, which are experimented in a larger extent among girls - 3.2 % compared to 2.8 % among boys.From this point of view, Romania is the second country (along with France) of those included in the ESPAD study, which does no longer register differences between boys and girls with regard to the lifetime prevalence of cannabis use.
    "It should be noted that, for all types of illicit drugs, Romania is below the European average values."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 20-21.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  5. (30-Day Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Youth, by Substance) "As in the case of the recent use, a first analysis on the current use of any illicit drug was performed, including in this concept the cannabis, the inhalants and ecstasy, and then another analysis in which to this illicit substances NPSs [New Psychoactive Substances] were added. Thus, in the first phase a prevalence of the current use of any illicit drug (cannabis, inhalants and ecstasy) among 16 years old Romanian pupils, by gender distribution was obtained, as follows: 5.8% among boys and of 3.4% among girls.
    "By adding the data regarding the actual use of NPSs, it results a use of any type of drug in the last 30 days of 6.3 % (cannabis, inhalants and ecstasy, NPSs), by gender distribution as follows: 8.2% among boys and of 4.8% among girls.
    "The prevalence of the illicit drug use in the last 30 days recorded values below 3 % for all the analyzed substances: cannabis (2.3 %: 2.4 % among boys; 2.1 % among girls), inhalants (2.2 %; 3.4 % among boys and 1.3 % among girls), NPSs (1.9 %; 2.3 % among boys and 1.5 % among girls) and ecstasy (0.7 %: 1.0% among boys and 0.3 % among girls)."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 22.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  6. (Prevalence of Alcohol Use) "The highest prevalence of drug use in Romania was recoded for the use of alcoholic beverages: over 80% of the population experimented the use of alcohol and almost two thirds (64.6%) of the respondents used such beverages recently which confirms the theory that alcohol is a largely accepted social drug."

    Source: 
    "2011 National Report (2010 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2011) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 23.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  7. (Prevalence of Drunkenness and Excessive Alcohol Use) "The results of the last survey shows one in three respondents (31.1%) experimented drunkenness at least once in his/her life, and one in 10 (9.6%) used alcohol excessively in the last 30 days until experiencing drunkenness. Comparing to the first general population survey (2004) there are significant diminutions of the three prevalence indicators for both age groups and genders.
    "Analysing drunkenness following excessive use of alcohol based on the demographic variables of gander [sic] and age group it can be noticed that:
    "• the highest values are recorded for the three prevalence indicators among male users aged 35 to 64;
    "• as opposed to the male situation, drunkenness prevalence in the last year and last 30 days is higher among young female users than adult users. It is noticed that as regards the lifetime prevalence of excessive alcohol use there is an ever smaller difference between the value recorded for the age group 15 to 34 and the one recorded for the age group 35-64 (2004 – 9.2%, 2010 – 0.9%)."

    Source: 
    "2011 National Report (2010 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2011) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 23-24.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  8. (Estimated Number of Problem Drug Users in Bucharest) "The analysis of the data from the "Behavioural and serologic survey on HIV, hepatitis B and C prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) in Bucharest” indicated 10.21% (0.1021; 95% CI: 0.0756 – 0.1365) of the people included in the survey were beneficiaries of drug addiction treatment (substitution treatment or detoxification treatment) programmes.
    "Although in the previous years, the number of beneficiaries of the syringe exchange programmes was used as benchmark, in 2011, this indicator was affected by closure of such programmes, what made that data reporting in the last 12 months being, for this reason, discontinuous.
    "On the other hand, data on drug users admitted in care units, as resulted from exhaustive monitoring of sole cases, both in terms of prevalence 67 and in terms of incidence, are for the first time available for 2011.
    "The division of the number of people included in the treatment programmes in 2011 to the above mentioned percentage, resulted in an estimated number of 19,265 (95% CI: 14,564 – 26,296) problem drug users 68 in Bucharest."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 52.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  9. (Increase in HIV Infections Among IDUs) "At the end of 2011, NAA and the Ministry of Health of Romania notified the detection of detection of an accentuated increase of new HIV infections among IDUs, reported by HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Department within the National Commission to Fight Against AIDS. While between 2007 and 2009, were reported annually, 3-5 cases of HIV infection among IDUs ii in 2010 their number increased to 12 cases, and in the first 9 months of 2011 62 cases were recorded125. On the other hand, if in 2009 only 1 % (5 of 428) of new cases of HIV infections were detected amongs IDUs, and in 2010 only 3 % (12 of 440) of such cases, in 2011 (the first 9 months), 15 % (62 of 405) of the reported new HIV infections were detected among IDUs.
    "The cases recorded in 2011 were mainly reported in Bucharest and in its surrounding area (56 of 62), represented predominantly men (55 of 62), aged less than 34 years old (55 of 62). Half of the cases were diagnosed with HIV infection during hospitalization in the specialized units (infectious diseases). The other cases were diagnosed throughout the routine monitoring conducted during substitution treatment, provided to drug users. In 87 % of the 62 cases was detected also the presence of the hepatitis C virus. Thirteen of the newly diagnosed with HIV were classified as AIDS cases, suggesting the fact that at least this proportion was infected in a longer period of time.SIDA Of the rest of the 49 cases, 29 had a number of CD4 cells that what greater than 500 cells/mm3, suggesting
    more recent infections.
    "Other data obtained from the routine monitoring of drug users admitted for treatment reveal an upward trend of 1 % (2 of 182) in 2008 to 3 % (11 of 329) in 2009, reaching the 2010 the value of 4 % (12 of 288) of the HIV-positive among the tested IDUsi."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 106-107.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  10. (HIV Related to Injection Drug Use) "In 2011, of the 216 cases of injecting drug users who declared to have been tested for HIV in the specialised medical units in the last 6 months at most, 25 cases of seropositive users (11.6 %) were recorded, which represents an increase of almost 3 times for this type of prevalence.
    "It is thus confirmed the trend recorded between 2009 and 2010, being observed an accentuated increase in HIV cases among IDUs and indicating the need to develop rapid interventions to prevent this infection to spread, especially among the vulnerable groups."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 98-99.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  11. (Treatment Service Availability) "In 2011, 64 centres reported providing care services to the drug users:
    "• 27 medical units of the Ministry of Health, out of which, 24 provide in-patient care services (2 in Bucharest and the remaining, in the counties: Bacau, Braila, Botosani, Brasov, Cluj, Cars-Severin, Constanta, Gorj, Hunedoara, Iaşi, Mehedinti, Mures, Suceava, Timis, Valcea) and 3 provide out-patient care services;
    "• 32 centres of the National Anti-drug Agency, out of which 3 in Bucharest, where out-patient integrated care services are provided for addictions, including substitution treatment based on methadone/suboxone/naltrexone for opioid addictions;
    "• 3 private centres/cabinets in Bucharest (Drug Addiction Intervention National Association- ANIT, PSYMOTION and D&C Medical) 81 where out-patient integrated care services for addictions (including substitution treatment for opioid addictions) are provided;
    "• 2 centres managed by the non-governmental organisation ARAS (Arena and Titan) in Bucharest, where out-patient integrated care services for addictions (including substitution treatment for opioid addictions) are provided."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 57.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  12. (Persons Entering Treatment) "In the reference year [2011], 3587 people benefited of treatment:
    "• 1232 people for alcohol and tobacco use (1095 in-patient, 99 out-patient and 38 in detention environment);
    "• 2355 for illicit drug and NPS (new psychoactive substances traded under the trading name of "ethno-botanical plants") use: 998 - in-patient, 1170 – out-patient and 187 - in detention environment.
    "According to the year of admission to treatment and the type of care, out of the 3587 people:
    "• 2997 requested care in 2011 and 590 were admitted to treatment on 01.01.2011;
    "• 2093 received in-patient care, 1269 - out-patient care and 225 received care services in detention."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 58.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  13. (Harm Reduction Activities) Romanian drug control authorities report that harm reduction programs in that country served 17,646 people during the period 2004-2011, of whom 3,135 were sole beneficiaries. This includes 7,356 served through fixed harm reduction centers (cumulative 2007-2011), of whom 3,135 were sole beneficiaries, and 12,275 served through mobile facilities/outreach (cumulative 2004-2011), of whom 2,040 were sole beneficiaries.
    The projects reported distributing 895,110 clean syringes in 2011. They also recovered 316,033 syringes, and distributed 204,099 condoms that year.

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 148, Tables 7-3 and 7-4.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  14. (Romanian Harm Reduction Programs and Funding Limited) "The Romanian drug policy described in the National Anti-drug Strategy 2005-2012 aims to create 'a functional integrated system of institutions and public services which will ensure the reduction of the occurrence and prevalence of drug use in the general population, adequate medical, psychological and social assistance for drug users and streamlined activities for preventing and countering the trafficking and production of illicit drugs and precursors.'73 However, the government’s strategy to reduce drug-related harms relies almost exclusively on donor funding to provide limited harm reduction services for people who inject drugs. For example, donor support is used to provide NSPs and OST programs, including some harm reduction programming made available in 10 of 38 prison facilities74.
    "Such reliance on international support raises concerns about sustainability and adequate integration with HIV treatment services provided largely by governments. Political leadership is often lacking to strategically prioritize the services for people most vulnerable to HIV. This leads to lack of coverage of and access to harm reduction services. The coverage of people who inject drugs remains extremely low: in 2009, less than 5% of injecting drug users in Bucharest received OST services, and by mid-2011 estimated OST coverage had risen only slightly, to 9%75."

    Source: 
    Merkinaite, S. "A war against people who use drugs: the costs" (Eurasian Harm Reduction Network (EHRN): Vilnius, Lithuania, 2012), p. 24.
    http://www.harm-reduction.org/sites/default/files/pdf/costs_report_2012_...

  15. (Syringe Exchange Program Activity In Romania

    Syringe Exchange Program Activity and Number of IDUs Served
    Year Number of Syringes Distributed to IDUs in Romania Number of IDUs Served by SEPs
    2008 1,108,762 7,284
    2009 1,730,776 9,417
    2010 946,820 8,966
    2011 895,160 9,000

    "The decrease in the average number of syringes/client/year provided in the syringe exchange programmes in recent years compared to the "peak" recorded in 2009 or even to the value recorded in 2008 directly influences the IDUs infection risk increase. Community services had a low capacity as they could provide only a limited number of syringes and the user was thus forced to use several times the same injection equipment.
    "With small variations in amplitude, the estimated number of IDUs in Bucharest remained the same over the last 4 years. But compared with the years 2009 and 2010, when syringe exchange services had an estimated rate of IDUs serving of approximately 50 % of the total of IDUs accessing community syringe exchange services, it decreased by about 20 % in 2011."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 149, Charts 7-2 and 7-3, and p. 150.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  16. (Availability of Drug Treatment In Prisons) "In 2011, the implementation of the Specific program of psycho-social assistance addressed to the drugs consuming persons or with consuming history persons detained in prison (program that implies the multidisciplinary approach – teacher, psychologist, social worker and physician), being registered 772 beneficiaries, persons deprived of liberty.
    "At the same time, within the project “Creation of three therapeutic communities in the Jilava, Rahova and Târgşor penitentiaries”, implemented by the National Administration of Penitentiaries, in partnership with the Probation Directorate within the Ministry of Justice, the National Anti-drug Agency along with its entire territorial structure, respectively the Drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling Centres, the Phoenix Foundation of Haga and the Ministry of Justice of Norway, in 2011, the putting into operation of the therapeutic communities was succeeded. Until the end of the reference year, a number of 154 inmates were medically, psychologically and socially tested, out of which 102 went through the therapeutic community program (66 persons in the Bucharest - Jilava Penitentiary, 22 of the Bucharest - Rahova Penitentiary and 14 from the Târgşor Penitentiary) 166.
    "In a manner similar to the previous year, during 2011, a number of 60 persons deprived of liberty were included within the methadone substitution program, carried out within the project “Access increase of the persons deprived of liberty to programs of decreasing risks related to drugs consumption”. As mentioned in the previous report, 2011 was the last year when the methadone substitution program carried out in the prison system was financed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and beginning with 2012 the National Administration of Penitentiaries started to ensure the methadone purchase of its own funds, following the non-inclusion of the prison-hospital units on the list of units that can perform the toxico-dependencies treatment subprogram, within the National Program of Mental Health, financed by the Ministry of Health."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 180-181.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  17. (Overdose Prevention and Treatment for People Released from Prison) "At present there are no special educative programs for risk overdose prevention upon penitentiary release. This type of programs/interventions are carried out exclusively for persons deprived of liberty who participate, as beneficiaries to the opiates substitution treatment programs/services, in the penitentiaries where they are available. Thus, within the program “Recidivism risk reduction after imprisonment”, experts of the probation services and the drug prevention, evaluation and counselling centres carried out drugs use prevention activities addressed to the inmates in the Bacău, Galaţi, Ialomiţa and Focşani penitentiaries.
    "Upon the penitentiary release, the persons deprived of liberty, included in the Methadone substitution program, have the possibility to continue, wilfully, the treatment in the Centres of Integrated Assistance for Addictions within the National Anti-drug Agency."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, pp. 180-181.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  18. Laws & Policies

    (Creation of National Anti-Drug Agency) "The year 2011 may be considered as representing the peak of the debates on the drug phenomenon. In this sense, in the context of a deep economical crisis with significant effects in all the fields of the social life and of a constant pressure generated by the growth in the use of new psychoactive substances, an increased interest towards the drug issue has been noticed both by Increasing of the legal initiative of the Parliament members and and by the increased concern of of the civil society, as well as by a series of specific measures taken by the Government of Romania.
    "Thus, one of the most significant measures of the Executive was the adoption of the Government Decision No 61/2011 5 on the organisation and functioning of the National Anti-drug Agency, a legal institution commissioned to ensure the coordination, at national level, of the development and implementation of policies in response to the drug phenomenon."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 8.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...

  19. (Criminal Penalties in Romania for Drug Possession) "In Romania drug laws set no threshold for personal possession; therefore, a person detained with traces of drugs may get a prison term from two to five years depending on the substance. Around 2,000 people are imprisoned each year for drug-related crimes, and the rate of people detained for drug crimes is increasing compared with other crimes. The cost of maintaining a person in prison is about $712 a month, or $8,544 a year. By comparison, methadone treatment costs $234 per month for one person88."

    Source: 
    Merkinaite, S. "A war against people who use drugs: the costs" (Eurasian Harm Reduction Network (EHRN): Vilnius, Lithuania, 2012), p. 26.
    http://www.harm-reduction.org/sites/default/files/pdf/costs_report_2012_...

  20. (Harm Reduction Projects in Romania) "The “SECOND CHANCE” Project, co-financed by the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013, "Investing in People" is implemented by ARAS in partnership with the Integration and Sens Pozitiv Associations, as well as with the National Institute for Infectious Disease' Prof. Dr. Matei Bals', from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2013. The project provides harm reduction services and substitution treatment, but its ultimate goal is to facilitate the employment for drug users in Bucharest, Ilfov, Timişoara and Constanţa, for a total of 3 500 beneficiaries, with a budget of 20 812 555 lei 142. In 2011, a part of this project involved services of sterile syringe distribution and used syringe recovery and provision of methadone substitution treatment:
    "• The Harm reduction centres for drug users provide free and confidential services of: syringe exchange, HIV/HBV/HCV voluntary counselling and testing, HAV and HBV vaccination, support, information and education, counselling in harm reduction, notifications to other services.
    "• Outreach services consist of: informing and educating beneficiaries on HIV/AIDS/other STDs, testing procedures, meaning of HIV test, universal rules of safety and hygiene, information and counselling on the injecting drug use-related risks, condom distribution, syringe exchange and distribution of other sterile injection equipment; notification to HIV voluntary counselling and testing centres, notifications to specialised medical detoxification facilities, substitution or post-treatment, distribution of informative materials."

    Source: 
    "2012 National Report (2011 Data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point: Romania: New Developments, Trends and In-depth Information on Selected Issues." (2012) Bucharest, Romania: Ministry of Administration and Interior, National Anti-Drug Agency, Romanian Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, p. 147.
    http://www.ana.gov.ro/rapoarte%20nationale/en/National%20Report%20on%20D...