Drug Use Estimates

21. Prevalence of Drug Use in the US by Race/Ethnicity

"• In 2013, among persons aged 12 or older, the rate of current illicit drug use was 3.1 percent among Asians, 8.8 percent among Hispanics, 9.5 percent among whites, 10.5 percent among blacks, 12.3 percent among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 14.0 percent among Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, and 17.4 percent among persons reporting two or more races.
"• There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of current illicit drug use between 2012 and 2013 for any of the racial/ethnic groups. Between 2002 and 2013, the rate of current illicit drug use increased from 8.5 to 9.5 percent for whites. Among blacks, the rate increased from 8.7 percent in 2003 and 2004 to 10.5 percent in 2013 (Figure 2.12)."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 26.
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...

22. Estimated Prevalence of Current Tobacco Use Among Pregnant Women in the US

"• The annual average rate of past month cigarette use in 2012 and 2013 among women aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant was 15.4 percent (Figure 4.5). The rate of current cigarette use among women aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant was lower than that among women who were not pregnant (24.0 percent). This pattern was also evident among women aged 18 to 25 (21.0 vs. 26.2 percent for pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively) and among women aged 26 to 44 (11.8 vs. 25.4 percent, respectively). Rates of current cigarette use in 2012-2013 among pregnant women aged 15 to 44 were 19.9 percent in the first trimester, 13.4 percent in the second trimester, and 12.8 percent in the third trimester.
"• The annual average rates of current cigarette use among women aged 15 to 44 who were not pregnant decreased from 30.7 percent in 2002-2003 to 24.0 percent in 2012-2013 (Figure 4.5). However, the prevalence of cigarette use among pregnant women in this age range did not change significantly during the same time period (18.0 percent in 2002-2003 and 15.4 percent in 2012-2013)."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 37.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

23. Trends in Prevalence of Current Heroin Use in the US

"The estimate of current heroin use in 2015 among people aged 12 or older was higher than the estimates in most years between 2002 and 2009, but it was similar to the estimates between 2010 and 2014 (Figure 8). However, even when there was a statistically significant difference between the 2015 estimate and prior years, the percentages were approximately the same, except for the estimate in 2014 (0.2 percent). For example, all of these estimates for current heroin use rounded to 0.1 percent. In 2014, the estimate of current heroin use was higher than in all previous years; however, the 2015 estimate does not provide strong support that the increase in 2014 signaled the start of a change in the trend. Future survey years will be useful for monitoring this trend.
"The estimate of past year heroin use in 2015 (0.3 percent) was also higher than the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2008, but it was similar to the estimates between 2009 and 2014 (Figure 9). This shift in heroin use among people aged 12 or older reflects changes in heroin use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, smaller increases in heroin use among young adults aged 18 to 25."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). pp. 10-11. Retrieved from
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

24. Estimated Substance Use In The US By Gender

"• In 2013, as in prior years, the rate of current illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older was higher for males (11.5 percent) than for females (7.3 percent). Males were more likely than females to be current users of several different illicit drugs, including marijuana (9.7 vs. 5.6 percent), cocaine (0.8 vs. 0.4 percent), and hallucinogens (0.7 vs. 0.3 percent).
"• In 2013, the rate of current illicit drug use was higher for males than females aged 12 to 17 (9.6 vs. 8.0 percent). This represents a change from 2012, when the rates of current illicit drug use were similar among males and females aged 12 to 17 (9.6 and 9.5 percent, respectively), and reflects a decrease in the rate of current illicit drug use among females from 2012 to 2013. Likewise, in 2013, the rate of current marijuana use was higher for males than females aged 12 to 17 (7.9 vs. 6.2 percent), which is a change from 2012 when the rates of current marijuana use for males and females were similar (7.5 and 7.0 percent).
"• The rate of current marijuana use among males aged 12 to 17 declined from 9.1 percent in 2002 to 6.9 percent in 2006, then increased between 2006 and 2011 (9.0 percent) (Figure 2.11). The rate decreased from 2011 to 2012 (7.5 percent) and remained stable in 2013 (7.9 percent). Among females aged 12 to 17, the rate of current marijuana use decreased from 7.2 percent in 2002 and 2003 to 6.2 percent in 2013."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 25.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

25. Estimated Prevalence of Marijuana Use in the US

"As noted in the illicit drug use section, an estimated 22.2 million Americans aged 12 or older in 2015 were current users of marijuana (Figure 1). This number of past month marijuana users corresponds to 8.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 3). The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current marijuana users in 2015 was similar to the percentage in 2014, but it was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2013. This increase in marijuana use among people aged 12 or older reflects the increase in marijuana use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, increases in marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Page 7. Retrieved from
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

26. Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among Full-Time Workers in the US

"• An estimated 6.4 percent, or 7.3 million, of full-time workers reported use of marijuana during the past month (Tables 2.2 and 2.3).
"• Adults aged 26 to 34 were only about half as likely as 18- to 25-year-olds to be past month marijuana users (8.0 vs. 15.9 percent). Past month use of marijuana was lower with increasing age (Table 2.2).
"• The prevalence of past month marijuana use was higher for males than females (7.9 vs. 4.3 percent, respectively) (Table 2.2).
"• An estimated 11.0 percent of workers reporting two or more races used marijuana during the past month. This was higher than among non-Hispanic white adults (6.9 percent). Fewer Hispanic adults (4.6 percent) reported past month marijuana use than non-Hispanic white adults who reported two or more races (Table 2.2).
"• Higher educational attainment and higher family income were associated with a lower prevalence of current marijuana use (Table 2.3)."

Larson, S. L., Eyerman, J., Foster, M. S., & Gfroerer, J. C. (2007). Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs (DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4273, Analytic Series A-29). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, pp. 15-16.
http://adaiclearinghouse.org/d...

27. Prevalence of Daily Or Almost Daily Marijuana Use in the US

"• In 2013, 5.7 million persons aged 12 or older used marijuana on a daily or almost daily basis in the past 12 months (i.e., on 300 or more days in that period), which was an increase from the 3.1 million daily or almost daily users in 2006 (Figure 2.15). The number of daily or almost daily users of marijuana in 2013 represented 17.4 percent of past year users.
"• In 2013, 8.1 million persons aged 12 or older used marijuana on 20 or more days in the past month, which was an increase from the 5.1 million daily or almost daily past month users in 2005 to 2007 (Figure 2.15). The number of daily or almost daily users in 2013 represented 41.1 percent of past month marijuana users."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 30.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

28. Global Prevalence of Cannabis Use

"Cannabis use has increased globally, particularly in Asia since 2009. Although epidemiological data is not available, experts from the region report a perceived increase in use. The regions with a prevalence of cannabis use that is higher than the global average continue to be West and Central Africa (12.4 per cent), Oceania (essentially Australia and New Zealand, 10.9 per cent), North America (10.7 per cent) and Western and Central Europe (7.6 per cent). Cannabis use in North America and in most parts of Western and Central Europe is considered to be stable or declining."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 1.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

29. Estimated Prevalence of Current Cocaine Use in the US

"In this report, estimates of the use of cocaine include use of crack cocaine. Estimates also are presented separately for crack use. In 2015, the estimate of about 1.9 million people aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 1) included about 394,000 current users of crack. These numbers correspond to about 0.7 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 7) and 0.1 percent who were current users of crack (Table A.1B in Appendix A). The 2015 estimate for current cocaine use was similar to the estimates in most years between 2007 and 2013, but it was higher than the estimate in 2014. The 2015 estimate of crack use was similar to the estimates in most years from 2008 to 2014. The 2015 estimates of both cocaine and crack use were lower than most of the estimates between 2002 and 2006."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Page 9. Retrieved from
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

30. Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013

"• In 2013, there were 601,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used cocaine for the first time within the past 12 months; this averages to approximately 1,600 initiates per day. This estimate was similar to the number in 2008 to 2012 (ranging from 623,000 to 724,000). The annual number of cocaine initiates in 2013 was lower than the estimates from 2002 through 2007 (ranging from 0.9 million to 1.0 million).
"• The number of initiates of crack cocaine ranged from 209,000 to 353,000 in 2002 to 2008 and declined to 95,000 in 2009. The number of initiates of crack cocaine has been similar each year since 2009 (e.g., 58,000 in 2013).
"• In 2013, most (81.9 percent) of the 0.6 million recent cocaine initiates were aged 18 or older when they first used. The average age at first use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 20.4 years. The average age estimates have remained fairly stable since 2002."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 62.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

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